The Wine Region Shuffle: Summer 2016 Updates

Here are a few recent updates to the ever-changing landscape of wine region rules and regulations!

Rosazzo Abbey (Abbazia di Rosazzo) in Friuli

Rosazzo Abbey (Abbazia di Rosazzo) in Friuli

The 334th DOC: In July of 2016, the Italian Ministry of Agriculture officially approved Italy’s 334th DOC: The Friuli DOC. This region has not yet been approved by the EU, but it is not believed that this should be merely a formality, and Italy has approved use of the term beginning with those wines released from the 2016 vintage. As we previously reported, the new DOC will cover the entire southern half of the Friuli–Venezia Giulia region (the northern half being rather mountainous and alpine and not generally suitable for viticulture).

The new Friuli DOC encompasses all of the area of the six previous DOCs of the region. The DOC will produce red, white, and sparkling wines from a range of grape varieties. Still while wines may be produced as a blend (Bianco) or labeled as one of the following varieties: Chardonnay, Friulano, Malvasia, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Riesling (which may include Welschriesling), Sauvignon Blanc, Ribolla Gialla, Gewürztraminer (Traminer Aromatico) or Verduzzo Friulano.

Still red wines may also be produced as a blend (Rosso) or varietally-labeled as Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Nero (Pinot Noir), or Refosco dal Peduncolo. A red wine labeled as “Cabernet” will contain a minimum of Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and/or Carmenère.

Sparkling (Spumante) wines may be produced using the Charmat or Metodo Classico production methods, and may be produced using any combination of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio, and/or Pinot Noir grapes. Unique to the Friuli DOC is the production of varietally-labeled sparkling wines (either Charmat of Metodo Classico) wines made using the Ribolla Gialla grape variety; this particular wine is not approved for production in any of the other DOCs of the region.


Expansion of the Sta. Rita Hills AVA: On August 22, 2016, the TTB approved the expansion of the Sta. Rita Hills AVA by 2,296 acres (930 ha). The ruling becomes effective on September 21. The newly-approved area expands the original boundaries of the AVA on its eastern side. The move is summarized in the petition as follows: “the proposed expansion would move a portion of the AVA’s existing boundary further to the east, to a road within a north-to-south canyon, named “Cañada de los Palos Blancos,” located west of Buellton.”

The Sta. Rita Hills sits in the western portion of, and mostly within, the larger Santa Ynez Valley AVA (which is in turn part of California’s Central Coast AVA).  The Sta. Rita Hills AVA was originally approved in 2001 and, as many California wine lovers know, the name was shorted to “Sta. Rita Hills” from the original “Santa Rita Hills” in order to avoid a conflict with Viñas Santa Rita, an established producer of Chilean wines.

The expansion has been in the works since March of 2013 when the original petition was filed on behalf of the owners of Pence Ranch and John Sebastiano Vineyard, both of which are located within the new boundaries of the Sta. Rita Hills AVA. The main grapes grown in the area covered by the new AVA boundaries are Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. There is a small amount of Grenache and there are plans to plant Syrah in the near future.

The petition for the expansion was not without controversy, as evidenced by the large number of comments filed on the TTB’s docket; two comment periods were allowed which generated over a total of 118 comments. The controversy mainly centered on the climate of the expansion area. As Sta. Rita Hills is known as a cool climate region, it was argued that the areas to the east—and therefore further inland—did not share the same cooling influences. However, the TTB determined that the climatic differences were minimal. There were also arguments about differences in soil–you can read the very interesting comments for yourself on the TTB Docket.

Read the press release here: TTB expands the Sta. Rita Hills AVA

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2016 SWE Conference Recaps: Tasting Focus

SWE’s 40th Annual Conference included some serious, advanced tasting classes led by some of the most renowned wine experts in the world. Tim Gaiser, MS presented on “Cause and Effect and Objective Factors,” and Roger Bohmrich, MW presented “Minerality: Examining, Challenging, & Tasting its Meaning.” Both were among the high-rated session at the conference.


Advanced Tasting Strategies: Cause and Effect and Objective Factors—presented by Tim Gaiser, MS. The first part of Tim’s session covered the “why” questions in the context of deductive tasting. In other words, what is it about this wine that makes it look, smell, and taste the way it does? This consideration can be very useful for a taster in learning about classic grapes/wine styles in tasting practice, and also exercises the critical thinking used in deductive tasting. Some examples of cause and effect include: primary colors (which are a result of grape variety, time spent in barrel, and/or oxidation); intensity of aroma (which may result from grape variety, climate, ripeness levels, structural elements such as high alcohol, malo-lactic fermentation, and/or oak usage); and body (which may result from alcohol or glycerin level and/or the level of dry extract in a wine). More information on cause and effect may be found on Tim’s blog post titled “Cause and Effect: The Why behind Deductive Tasting.”

Another topic covered in Tim’s presentation was the importance of trying to identify those factors in a wine that are measurable, or objective. Examples of objective factors include basic measurements such as the acid, alcohol, and tannin levels; and may also include aromatic terpenes, pyrazines or thiols; evidence of oak or signs of oxidation. For more information on objective factors, see Tim’s blog post titled “Tasting Strategies.”


Minerality: Examining, Challenging, & Tasting its Meaning-presented by Roger Bohmrich, MS: Roger started his session with the very interesting fact that the term “minerality” has only recently been widely used as a descriptor for wine. As a matter of fact, the term is not included in Ann Noble’s Wine Aroma Wheel, was not mentioned in Emile Peynaud’s book The Taste of Wine, and did not appear in the Oxford Companion to Wine until the current (2015) edition.

The session went on to confirm the wide-spread belief that mineral-like aromas are not believed to be derived directly from minerals in the soil, and that soil minerals are not the same substance and mineral nutrients.

Along the way, however, the point of view of many “mineral believers” was also discussed, and some of the wines that these “believers” point to as examples were tasted. These included Domaine Patrick Baudouin Anjou “Effusion” 2014, Fritsch Grüner Veltliner “Steinberg” 2015, and Christian Moreau Père & Fils Chablis 2014, among others. Attendees were encourage to rate the wines based on their own perception on minerality—or not—in the glass. The last wine tasted, a Luigi Bosca Mendoza Malbec from 2013, was chosen specifically because it was unlikely to show minerality; a perception with which the great majority of the audience agreed.

In the end, it was concluded that there are two competing hypotheses of minerality in wine: one that holds the view that minerality in wine is a direct expression of minerals in the wine, and one that defines minerality as a complex sensory phenomenon with many causes and expressions. As a result of Roger’s extensive research, he has summarized that the factors that can lead to a mineral perception in wine may include high total acidity, presence of succinic acid, absence of “fruitiness,” presence of volatile thiols, trace elements and salts, as well as culture, psychology, and expectation. For more information, you may download the slide show here: Minerality-Examining, Challenging, and Tasting its Meaning-presented by Rober Bohmrich, MW

We will be posting additional conference recaps in the next few days. In addition, we are building our permanent archive of notes from the 2016 SWE Conference-click here! If you are a conference speaker who would like to share your materials, please contact Jane A. Nickles at

2016 CWE Conference Recaps: Focus on Chile

At SWE’s 40th Annual Conference, held August 11-13, 2016 at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington DC, we were lucky to have some outstanding Chilean winemakers share their wines and their stories with us! Read on to learn about these two sessions, one which centered on the superstar–Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon, and another about the Syrah—Chile’s “Great Unknown”


Syrah: Chile’s Great Unknown – presented by Felipe Tosso: Syrah is a successful grape in many parts of the world. The largest Syrah-producing countries in the world are (in this order) France, Australia, Spain, Argentina, South Africa, the United States, Italy, and Chile. Chile may be number 8 in the list, but at 15,000 planted acres, Syrah might be considered Chile’s greatest “unknown” grape variety!

Within Chile, the largest plantings of Syrah are located in the Colchagua Valley, Maule Valley and Maipo Valley. The Colchagua Valley has over 6,600 acres planted to Syrah. The Mediterranean climate in the Colchagua Valley, along with the deep, rocky soil of the area tends to produce Syrah-based wines with deep flavors and mineral complexity. As representatives of this style of wine, the Viñedos Emiliana “Coyam” 2012 (a blend of 39% Syrah, 32% Carmenère, 17% Merlot, 9% Cabernet Sauvignon, 2% Mourvèdre, and 1% Malbec) was poured along with a Montes Alpha Syrah from 2013. Another interesting wine Colchagua Valley wine known as Ventisquero Pangea 2011 was offered. This unfiltered, richly hued wine is produced using 90% Syrah, 7% Cabernet Sauvignon, and 3% Viognier. Click here to download the slide show from the session: Syrah – Chile’s Great Unknown – presented by Felipe Tosso


Chilean Cabernet Country – presented by Patrick Valette: This session started out with a discussion of the areas in Chile that are best-known for Cabernet Sauvignon. These include the wine areas of Curico, Maipo Valley, Cachapoal Valley, Colchagua Valley, and Maule Valley.

Of the wines from the Maipo Valley, many are grown in the high-elevation Alto Maipo, a cool-climate area with a blend of colluvial and alluvial soils featuring clay, sand, loam, and gravel. Several wines from this area were sampled, including Viña Santa Rita Medalla Real Cabernet Sauvignon 2012, Viña Vetisquero Enclave Cabernet Sauvignon 2011, and Carmen Gold Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon 2009.

Located about 80 miles southwest of Santiago, the Colchagua Valley is another prime growing area for Cabernet Sauvignon. This area enjoys a nearly “picture perfect” Mediterranean climate, with alternating influences between the cool breezes off of the Pacific Ocean and the winds flowing down from the Andes Mountains. The Montes Alpha 2013 Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in vineyard areas known for their granite soils, was a highlight of this part of the tasting.

Another area known for Cabernet is the Cachapoal Valley. This area is planted over 80% to red grapes, with Cabernet Sauvignon and Carmenère being the superstars.  A fascinating red blend, Viña VIK, grown in the Millahue subregion of the Cachapoal Valley, is produced form 55% Cabernet Sauvignon, 29% Carmenère, 7% Cabernet Franc, 5% Merlot and 4% Syrah was featured in this part of the session, and well-received by all! Click here to download the slide show from the session: Chilean Cabernet Country – presented by Patrick Valette

We will be posting additional conference recaps in the next few days. In addition, we are building our permanent archive of notes from the 2016 SWE Conference-click here! If you are a conference speaker who would like to share your materials, please contact Jane A. Nickles at

2016 Conference Recaps – Friday Afternoon

The following sessions were enjoyed by all on Friday afternoon, August 12, 2016 as part of SWE’s 40th Annual Conference, held at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington DC!


Dry White Bordeaux: Presented by Mary Gorman-McAdams, MW and Linda Lawry, DWS, CWE: This class started with a discussion of dry white wines in the overall context of Bordeaux, and it was quite enlightening! For instance, dry white wines represent only about 9% of the output of Bordeaux—and this includes Crémant!

To put the numbers into context, Bordeaux has 10 appellations and 24,000 acres (9.800 ha) of vines dedicated to white wine. Of the vineyard area, about 47% is dedicated to Sémillon, 45% to Sauvignon Blanc, 6% to Muscadelle, and the remaining 2% to a smattering of other allowed grape varieties that include Colombard Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Merlot Blanc and Folle Blanche.

This introduction was followed by a deep discussion of the grape varieties, soils, and winemaking techniques used in conjunction with the wine whites of Bordeaux. Following this, was a tasting that highlighted some of the leading white wine appellations of Bordeaux. Included in the tasting were the following wines: Château Sainte Marie Vieilles Vignes 2015 Entre-Deux-Mers, Château La Freynelle Bordeaux Blanc 2015, Château du Champs du Treilles “Vin Passion” Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux 2013, and Château de Cérons Graves Blanc 2013. These wines represented the following white wine appellations of Bordeaux: Entre-Deux-Mers AOC (exclusive to white wines), Bordeaux Blanc AOC (the largest white wine appellation), Sainte-Fox-Bordeaux AOC (an appellation for red, white, and sweet whites), and Graves AOC (an appellation for both whites and reds). To discover the rest of the wines tasted, and the rest of the story of dry white Bordeaux, click here to download the handout and slide show for Dry White Bordeaux-presented by Mary Gorman-McAdams, MW, DWS.


Betting on Malbec–the Different Terroirs of Cahors: Presented by Bertrand-Gabriel Vigouroux: This fascinating session started out with the story of the history of “the Black Wine of Cahors.” Here’s just a small bit of the story: Jean XXII, the second Pope in Avignon, was born in Cahors and brought a winemaker from Cahors with him to plant the vineyards of Châteauneuf-du-Pape and to help build the Palace of Avignon. For many generations in the pre-phylloxera era, Malbec was one of the main grapes planted in Bordeaux. While the Malbec grapes in Bordeaux and Cahors were decimated by phylloxera, by this time Michel A. Pouget had brought the Malbec grape to Argentina where it continues to thrive.

Today, while there are over 40,000 hectares of Malbec in Argentina, there are approximately 4,400 hectares in Cahors. The region of Cahors is about 45 miles long by 15 miles wide, with over 300 different producers. Georges Vigouroux is considered to be one of the pioneers of the modern era of Cahors, having purchased and restored the Château de Mercues, the oldest château in Cahors, in 1983. The château now houses a winery and hotel, and is credited with the beginnings of “oenotourism” in the area.

The session continued with a discussion of the soils and terroir of Cahors, and ended with a tasting that included Château Leret-Monpezat Grand Vin Cahors 2012, Crocus ‘L’Atelier’ Malbec de Cahors 2012, and Chateau de Haute-Serre Malbec de Cahors 2014 (among others). To read more about the wines and the session, click here to download the slideshow – Betting on Malbec-the Terroirs of Cahors-presented by Bertrand-Gabriel Vigouroux.


Exploring the Haut-Savoie in Wines and Spirits: presented by Hoke Harden, CSW, CSE—Hoke Harden CSW, CSE took his class on a voyage through history from the Carolingian Empire, to the Kingdom of Arles, and finally to the House of Savoy. Following the expansion of a single county, which became a Duchy, which included a Principality, which became a Kingdom, then another larger Kingdom, the House of Savoy also contained diverse and remarkable wine- and spirit-producing regions, which included, at times, Savoy, Bugey, Isere, Aosta, and Piedmont, among others.

Wines tasted included Berthollier Chignin Vielles Vignes 2013 (Jacquere) Vin de Savoie, Maison Anselmet Torrette Superieur Vallée d’Aoste DOC, and Tenuta de Fontanafredda Serralunga di Alba Barolo. Spirits and aromatized wines were also included in the tasting, such as Cocchi Vermouth di Torino, Vermouth de Chambéry, and Dolin Génépy des Alpes.

To read more about these wines, spirits, and the historic House of Savoy, click here to download the handout and slideshow Wines and Spirits of the House of Savoy-presented by Hoke Harden CSW, CSE.

We will be posting additional conference recaps in the next few days. In addition, we are building our permanent archive of notes from the 2016 SWE Conference-click here! If you are a conference speaker who would like to share your materials, please contact Jane A. Nickles at

2016 SWE Conference Recaps – Friday Morning

The following sessions were enjoyed by all on Friday morning, August 12, 2016 as part of SWE’s 40th Annual Conference, held at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington DC!


Not all Cavas are Created Equal: Tracy Ellen Kamens, CWE, asked the question: Is Luxury Cava an oxymoron, or a paradigm? Tracy told the story of the history of Cava, starting in 1872 when José Raventós produced the first sparkling wine made using the Traditional Method in the Penedès region. The Codorníu cellars at Sant Sadurní d’Anoia were then built, and by the early 1900’s, the facility was producing about 100,000 bottles of cava per year.  The grapes of Cava were discussed, which include the leading varieties of Macabeo, Parellada, and Xarel-lo, as well as the minor grapes of Garnacha Tinta, Trepat, Pinot Noir, Subirat Parent, and Monastrell.

All along the way, a variety of Cavas were tasted, which included Alta Alella Bruant 2014 Brut Nature, Parés Baltà Blanca Cusiné Gran Reserva Brut Nature, and Agustí Torelló Mata Gran Reserva Barrica Brut Nature 2010. Click here to download the slideshow for All Cava is not Created Equal-presented by Tracey Ellen Kamens, CWE, and click here to download Tasting Notes – All Cava is not Created Equal-presented by Tracey Ellen Kamens CWE.


Vino Nobile di Montepulciano—Tuscany’s Tiny Gem:  In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the DOC, Silvia Loriga and Paul Wagner presented a session all about Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. The Vino Nobile DOC is tiny–just 40,000 acres (16,500 ha) in total area, with less than 75 bottling wineries producing the wines. The main grape of the area is Sangiovese, here often known as Prugnolo Gentile. Two wines are produced within the DOC–the Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, which requires at least two years of aging, and Vino Nobile Riserva, which requires a minimum of three.

After a slide show of some of the cultural icons of Montepulciano, including the tradition of Bravìo delle Botti as well as local landmarks including the Fortress of Montepulciano and the Well of the Griffon and Lions, a wine tasting commenced. Wines tasted included the 2012 vintage of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano from Boscarelli, Dei, Fattoria La Braccesca, Salcheto, and Tenuta di Gracciano della Seta. Click here to download the slideshow from the session Vino Nobile di Montepulciano-Tuscany’s Hidden Gem.


New Generation Bordeaux: Presented by Mary Gorman-McAdams, MW and Linda Lawry, DWS, CWE, this session focused on the emerging generation of 30-40 something, passionate young winegrowers in Bordeaux. This creative group is interested in using the latest technology and innovation while still respecting the tradition and heritage of Bordeaux while expanding the reach of Bordeaux to include more reasonably priced wines that are suitable for casual, everyday consumption as well as special occasions. Wines tasted included Le Rosé de Floridene 2014, a pale, direct-press rosé from an organically-farmed estate owned by the late Professor Denis Dubourdieu and his wife Florence; La Cuvée Bistrot de Puy Arnaud, produced with 70% Merlot and 30% grown on a biodynamic estate, and L’Atypic de Peybonhomme 2010, Vin de France—50% Malbec and 50% Cabernet Franc  (biodynamically grown). Click here for a copy of the slideshow and handout for the session  New Generation Bordeaux-presented by Mary Gorman-McAdams.

We will be posting additional conference recaps in the next few days. In addition, we are building our permanent archive of notes from the 2016 SWE Conference-click here! If you are a conference speaker who would like to share your materials, please contact Jane A. Nickles at

SWE Conference Recaps 2016: Day One


The first day of our 40th Annual SWE Conference started with a bang!

Spain’s Single Vineyard Estates: In Nora Z. Favalukas’ session on Spain’s Single Vineyard Estates, attendees started out their tasting with a Gramona III Gran Reserve “Lustros” Cava from 2007, followed by a 100% Garnacha Tinta from the Somontano DO.

This was followed by a single-estate Finca Valpiedra Rioja DOCa Reserva 2009, Numanthia Toro Tinto DO 2009, an impressive Mustiguillo Quincha Corral Vino de Pago 2012, and Mas Doix Doix Vinyes Velles 2012 from DOQ Priorat (among others).

Click here to download the Tasting Sheets-Spain’s Single Vineyard Estates-presented by Nora Favelukas, as well as the handout from the session here: Spain’s Single Vineyard Estates-presented by Nora Z Favelukes.


Bordeaux – Napa Valley Seminar and Tasting: Mary Gorman-McAdams, MW, DWS, of the Bordeaux Wine Council, accompanied by Connor Best, CSW, of Napa Valley Vintners and Linda Lawry, DWS, CWE, of the International Wine Center presented a “compare and contrast” session which pitted Bordeaux wines alongside Napa Valley Wines. After a detailed introduction, three groups of wines were tasted side-by-side: the first round showcased Sauvignon Blanc-based white wines, followed by a flight of Cabernet Sauvignon-based red wines, followed by another flight of reds dominated by Merlot.

You may download their presentation, which includes details on the wines sampled here: Bordeaux-Napa Valley Comparative Tasting-presented by Mary Gorman-McAdams, MW, DWS.


Stellenbosch: Seven Wards or More? Quick! Can you name the 7 wards of the Stellenbosch District? Surely, the attendees of Jim Clarke’s session, “Stellenbosch—Seven Wards, or More?” can! After a slide show highlighting the beauty of South Africa’s winelands and the unique features of the Stellenbosch Region, attendees embarked on a tasting tour of the seven wards.

The wines included Lanzerac Chardonnay from the Jonkershoek Valley and Rudi Schultz Syrah from the Bottelary Ward.

For more information on the 7 wards and the wines tasted during the session, click here: Stellenbosch-Seven Wards or More-presented by Jim Clarke. For more information on the wines, click here to download the: Tech Sheets from Jim Clarke’s Stellenbosch session


American Rum: From Pirates to Pineapples: We may never know for sure where the first rum was produced, but most experts agree that the likely birthplace of rum is Barbados—and we do know for certain that the first written record of the use of the term “Rum” was in 1658, concerning the legal recording of a Barbados planation sale that included “four large mastrick cisterns for the liquor for rum.”

But here’s an interesting twist—as discovered by attendees of David Singer’s session entitled “American Rum: From Pirates to Pineapples, its History and Innovations”—the first American distillery was located in Providence, Rhode Island 1684 (although Boston quickly became the center for American rum production).

To learn more about American rum—including Privateer rum and delectable rum produced in Hawaii—click here: American Rum from Pirates to Pineapples-presented by David Singer CWE, CSS


Climate, Grapes, and Wine: Understanding Terroir Influences in a Variable and Changing Climate was the topic covered by Gregory V. Jones, Professor of Environmental Science and Policy at Southern Oregon University.

Dr. Jones gave attendees an overview of the changing wine map, noting that commercial vineyards and wineries are now located in such non-traditional areas as India, south China, Beijing, and Vietnam (among many others). The reasons behind these burgeoning areas were also discussed, and include the change from national to international economics, changing demographics, growing demand, the never-ending search for the “next new thing,” and—perhaps—the role of climate change. To read the fascinating science behind these ideas, click here to download the slide deck for this session:Climate, Grapes, and Wine-presented by Gregory Jones

We will be posting additional conference recaps in the next few days. In addition, we are building our permanent archive of notes from the 2016 SWE Conference-click here! If you are a conference speaker who would like to share your materials, please contact Jane A. Nickles at


Welcome to the World, Tip of the Mitt AVA!


In August of 2015, the TTB received a petition from the Straits Area Grape Growers Association proposing the establishment of the “Tip of the Mitt” AVA on Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. As announced on July 21, 2106, the new Tip of the Mitt AVA has been approved and will be effective as of August 22, 2016.

The 2,760 square mile AVA (American Viticultural Area) is bordered by Grand Traverse Bay, Little Traverse Bay, and Lake Michigan to the west; the Straits of Mackinac to the north; and Lake Huron to the east.  The AVA includes the counties of Charlevoix, Emmet, Cheboygan, Presque Isle, Alpena, and Antrim Counties (or portions thereof).  There are currently 41 commercial vineyards and 8 wineries in the area. There are now just 94 acres of commercial vineyards, although there are plans for an additional 48 acres to be planted in the next few years.  The AVA is not contained within any existing AVAs.

According to the petition, the unique features of the AVA include its climate and soils. The surrounding lakes, straits, and bays provide a moderating effect on the climate, making the area slightly warmer, less prone to freezing temperatures, and with a slightly longer growing season than the areas to the south.


The soils in the area are comprised mainly of coarse-textured glacial till (a mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders). The soils within the Tip of the Mitt AVA have much higher levels of organic matter and water-retention capacity than those to the south, so one challenge of wine growing in the area is to control moisture accumulation and the vigor of the vine canopy. A positive aspect of the soils within the AVA is that they heat slowly in the spring, which effectively delays bud break until the greatest risk of spring frost has passed

The term “Tip of the Mitt” refers to a common nickname used for the area, referring to the mitten-shaped landmass of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. (For reference, the mid-eastern region is often identified as “The Thumb.”)

The Tip of the Mitt is the fifth AVA in Michigan. The others include the Lake Shore Michigan AVA, the Leelanau Peninsula AVA, the Old Mission Peninsula AVA, and the Fennville AVA.

Click here to read the TTB documents concerning the establishment of the Tip of the Mitt AVA

Click here for more information on Michigan Wines from the Michigan Grape and Wine Industry Council

Conference Preview: Amazing Sake and Cheese Pairings

Today we have a Conference Preview from Toshio Ueno, certified Master of Sake. Toshio describes his session “Amazing Sake and Cheese Pairing,” to be presented at SWE’s 40th Annual Conference, and tells us about his journey to becoming a Master of Sake.


Yes, Sake can be paired with cheese. If you think SAKE should only be paired with Japanese food, think again. Through Sake’s unique multiple parallel fermentation using Koji (microbe) and yeast, Sake retains a good deal of lactic acid – which everyone know is also a main component of cheese. In this seminar, let’s discover how different style of cheeses and Sakes can be paired, to give you an idea for your next Sake & Wine pairing dinner.

Toshio Ueno is certified Master of Sake, Master Sake Sommelier, and Shochu Sommelier. Toshio is currently the only person in the world to hold Master of Sake (酒匠), Master Sake Sommelier (日本酒学講師), and WSET Sake Educator diploma. Born in Japan where his family has grown Koshu grapes for generations, Toshio grew up helping in the family business from a young age.

Following his college education in the US and employment at an international trading company in Tokyo, Toshio joined Chateraise, a pastry and wine company as Director of Sales. There, he was put in charge of overseeing the personal wine collection of the company’s president, which intrigued him to enter the world of wine stewardship and research. Toshio joined Mutual Trading Company in 2002, where he is Manger of the Business Development Department in marketing Japanese foods, Jizake, and Shochu to the mainstream American trade. With his passion and expertise in Jizake, Shochu, and Wine, Toshio aims to further promote Japanese food and Sake cultures to new, international audiences.

He has been Vice President & Executive Instructor at Sake School of America, which offers two Sake classes (Sake Adviser, Sake Sommeliers). Toshio has taught over 800 students since 2010 and has been a guest lecturer at Culinary Institute of America at Greystone, Napa Valley College and Cal Poly Pomona Collins College of Hospitality. Most recently he has lead a sake and shochu Master Class at the “Taste of Japan” at 2016 Culinary Institute of America Sommelier Summit in Napa.

Toshio’s session will be offered on Thursday, August 11th at 1:30 pm as part of SWE’s 40th Annual Conference.


Conference Preview: Super Tuscany!

Today we have a Conference Preview from Paul Poux, CSW. Paul gives us an update from Tuscany, where he has been busy preparing his session “Super Tuscany” session for SWE’s 40th Annual Conference.


Hello from Tuscany, where I have been doing wine ‘research’ for my seminar next month. As you can imagine, it’s a terrible burden but I was glad to make the sacrifice. I started in Chianti. What a fascinating place this is, with history at every turn: the 1716 proclamation establishing the first Tuscan wine zones in Chianti and Carmignano; a Castello-now-winery in Chianti once owned by the family whose daughter was painted by Leonardo, perhaps you have heard of her, Mona Lisa; and the Castello di Brolio, once owned by Barone Ricasoli (I learned it’s pronounced Ri CAH soli), who laid down what he considered the definitive recipe for Chianti in the 1800s, one that even today seems remarkably prescient.

There is more recent history too: a sharecropper-like system for agricultural workers that existed in the area until after World War II; and the development of the straw basket on Chianti bottles, which made this Sangiovese-based wine fashionable for some but concealed a not very good wine underneath. How Chianti developed, changed, and certainly improved is a focus of my seminar.

I was also fascinated by my visit to Montalcino to learn more about Brunello. Brunello is world famous now but just 60 years ago circumstances were very different for both the wine and this now gorgeous hilltop town.


My last visit was to explore the Super-Tuscans, both in Chianti and in the Bolgheri area, which is by the coast. These bold thinkers wanted to make the best wines they could, whether part of the current DOC system or not, and the world took notice.

What about the wines themselves that we will be tasting? My seminar is one of the last, after lunch on Saturday when many of you could be tired of tasting; however I recommend you pace yourselves during the previous days so you can fully appreciate my lineup! I don’t want to give too much away, but I am excited about the wines. This delicious mix will include a couple of superstars and a couple of surprises, but all will be interesting!

Ciao and see you there!

Paul’s session, entitled “Super Tuscany” will be offered on Saturday, August 13th at 1:15 pm as part of SWE’s 40th Annual Conference, to be held in Washington DC. Here’s how Paul describes the session: In the 1960s, Chianti from Italy was incredibly popular in the US and other countries, and quality suffered. A few producers inside and outside Chianti dared to break with wine law and tradition to make better wine – and critics and consumers noticed. The emergence of a new kind of Italian wine, the Super Tuscans, reverberated throughout Tuscany and Italy, leading to important changes in wine law and wine styles, including Chianti. Taste wines Paul -headshotfrom throughout Tuscany that have been part of this fascinating history.

Paul Poux, CSW finds joy in combining food, wine and travel. Paul provides wine education ‘experiences’ to Millennials, and to the rest of us, for wine brands and regions. Paul also does marketing and sponsor management for food and wine festivals around the country.

Paul’s favorite wines are Amarone and Muscadet. Tell him yours at



Conference Preview: The Role of Viticulture in the Evolution of Napa Valley Wines


Today we have a Conference Preview from Remi Cohen. Remi’s session is entitled “The Role of Viticulture in the Evolution of Napa Valley Wines.” Read on to hear how she describes this session!

Napa Valley is a leader in viticulture and winemaking, producing some of the highest quality wines in the world.  As all truly great wines reflect their origins in the vineyard, the evolution of Napa Valley winemaking can also be understood by examining changes in vineyard practices over the years.  Join us on Thursday, August 11 at 3:15 p.m. as we explore how vineyard practices have evolved over the last 50 years, and how these changes have affected the wines produced in the region.

Napa Valley has a rich and storied history of viticulture that began when George Calvert Yount was the first to plant grapes in Napa Valley in 1839 using cuttings from the Sonoma mission.    The earliest vineyards utilized simple designs based on missionary or European styles.  This was mostly head-trained vines on a wood post and fields were planted to mixed varietal blends.  Commercial wineries flourished from the 1860’s, when Charles Krug created the first commercial winery in 1861, through to Prohibition.


After the Repeal of Prohibition, the Napa Valley wine and vineyard industry witnessed another resurgence, and one that has not stopped as Napa continues to flourish as a leader in global viticulture and winemaking.

In 1968, Napa County created America’s First Agricultural Preserve, a land-zoning ordinance that established agriculture and open space as the best use for the land in the fertile valley and foothill areas of Napa County. This set the stage for the development of an industry over the next fifty years.  It is interesting to explore how vineyard practices have changed over the course of the next fifty years, and how that has affected wine styles in Napa Valley.

A typical vineyard in Napa Valley in 1975 had vines that were minimally-trained, with vigorous vines that with minimal canopy management. The vines and rows were spaced far apart, and most of the rows were oriented north to south or east to west.  The vineyard floor was heavily cultivated by discing. Often the vineyard was dry-farmed with minimal inputs.  Minimal grape thinning occurred.  Harvest occurred once the grapes achieved 22 to 23 Brix.

By 1995, a lot had changed in viticulture in Napa Valley.   Vineyard acreage had grown by over 30% and Cabernet Sauvignon acreage had nearly doubled. Vines were tightly-trained to a vertically-shoot positioned trellis and heavily manicured.  Vine shoots are tucked, hedged, have laterals and even leaves removed around the clusters.  The vine and row spacing narrowed dramatically so vine density per acre was much higher.  The vineyard floor often had permanent cover crops or at least permanent cover crops in the alternate rows.


Drip irrigation was used in most vineyards.  Significant crop thinning was used to achieve stylistic and yield goals.  Harvest was at a much higher Brix, often ranging from 24 Brix all the way to 29 or even 30 Brix.

These dramatic changes in viticultural practices made a big impact on the wine styles that were produced from these different vineyard settings.  In my presentation, we will explore how these different viticultural practices impacted wine style from 1975 to 1995. Further, we will look at how current vineyards are being planted, and why, from using traditional techniques to more modern approaches. What does a typical vineyard look like in 2015?  What did a typical Napa Cab taste like in 1975, 1995, and how has that affected the style of wines we see in Napa now?

Remi’s session, “The Role of Viticulture in the Evolution of Napa Valley Wines” will be presented on Thursday, August 11 at 3:15 pm as part of SWE’s 40th Annual Conference. The session will include the opportunity to taste a range of wines from iconic Napa Valley producers that exemplify the differences in vineyard practices and wine style.


Remi Cohen is the Vice President and General Manager of Lede Family Wines, encompassing Cliff Lede Vineyards in the Stags Leap District of Napa Valley and FEL Wines in the Anderson Valley. In her role, Cohen directs the winemaking process from vineyard to bottle and is responsible for top quality, small-lot winemaking that is expressive of appellation and terroir. In addition, she is a brand ambassador and oversees the distribution of all wines throughout the domestic and international markets.

Born and raised in East Brunswick, New Jersey, Cohen migrated to the West Coast and attended U.C. Berkeley where she received a degree in molecular and cellular biology. Subsequently, she enrolled in the Viticulture and Enology program at U.C. Davis, where she received her Master’s Degree.  Later, Cohen completed her M.B.A. at Golden Gate University in San Francisco.

Cohen is an advocate of sustainable farming practices and has hosted lectures on sustainability and winegrowing at venues including U.C. Berkeley, U.C. Davis, the Commonwealth Club, Society of Wine Educators, and the American Society of Enology and Viticulture. In addition to writing a column for Vineyard & Winery Management, Cohen is on the board of the Napa Valley Grapegrowers and president of the Stags Leap District Winegrowers Association.