Within the Walls of Clos Vougeot

Clos Vougeot vineyardsIn the Burgundy region the term “clos” refers to an enclosed vineyard. The River Vouge, which is actually just a small stream, separates the village of Vougeot from Chambolle-Musigny. The Grand Cru vineyard named for both features, Clos Vougeot, might just be one of the most fascinating vineyards in France.

The vineyard was originally planted, and the wall built around it, by the Cistercian monks of Cîteaux Abbey around the year 1336.  The Château de Clos de Vougeot, built by rebuilding and enlarging a small chapel on the property, was added in 1551.

After the French Revolution, the Château and vineyards were taken from the Church by the State and, in 1881, sold to Julien-Jule Ouvrard, who also bought Romanée-Conti. After Ouvrard’s death, Clos de Vougeot passed to his three heirs, who put the estate up for sale in 1889.  When the vineyard was sold to six Burgundy wine merchants, the vineyard was subdivided for the first time since its creation 700 years prior. Since that initial division, the estate has gone through several generations of inheritance subdivisions and land sales, such that today Clos de Vougeot has over 80 individual owners.

Chateau de Clos du VougeotIn 1920, Etienne Camuzet, an owner of Vosne-Romanée, purchased the Château de Clos de Vougeot and allowed the “Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin,” a fraternal organization devoted to preserving the traditions of Burgundy, to hold meetings and events there. The Château has served as the headquarters of the Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin ever since.

The vineyard itself is roughly rectangular, sloping from the northwest corner down towards the south and east. Roughly 117 acres of the enclosure are planted to vineyards. As the vineyard is large and situated on a slope, there is a great deal of diversity in the terroir within the enclosed vineyard.  While most other vineyards in Burgundy have been delineated and classified by soil, Clos Vougeot seems to have been classified by the delineation of the wall itself.

The area surrounding the Château, in the northwest corner of the vineyard, is considered to be the finest.  The soils here are light chalk and gravel over well-drained oolitic limestone. This portion of the vineyard borders the Grand Cru vineyards of Musigny and Grands Échezeaux.

332px-Clos_De_Vougeot_1994The middle region of the vineyard has soil consisting of softer limestone, clay, and gravel with moderate drainage.  Most of the other Côte de Nuits vineyards situated at this level of the slope are classified as premier cru.

The lowest portion of the vineyard borders RN74, the main road of the area, and is nearly flat, with alluvial clay soil and poor drainage. This part of the vineyard borders mostly village and regional-level vineyards. No other Grand Cru vineyard in the Côte de Nuits stretches down the hill to RN74.

Clos de Vougeot is a Grand Cru AOC for red wine produced from Pinot Noir. Red wine that does not meet the INAO regulations for Grand Cru status, such as those regarding maximum yield and minimum sugar levels at harvest, may be bottled as Vougeot Premier Cru.  White wines produced with Chardonnay may also be produced under the Vougeot Premier Cru AOC.

The array of soils and vineyard owners added to the typical vintage variations expected in the Burgundy region mean that Clos de Vougeot wines are produced in a dizzying array of quality levels and even styles.

When the Cistercians tended the vineyard, they produced batches of wine from the entire vineyard, and then blended them to a style and quality consistency. In more modern times, the finest wines of Clos de Vougeot, dense and robust while young, can blossom with perhaps ten years of age into elegant wines worthy of the Grand Cru Status.

The Château du Clos de Vougeot:   http://www.closdevougeot.fr/fr/

The Confrérie des Chevaliers du Tastevin: http://www.tastevin-bourgogne.com/en/

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It’s an AVA! Moon Mountain AVA Approved in Sonoma County

New AVA 2You heard it here first…a new California AVA was approved on October 1, 2013.  The new AVA, named Moon Mountain District – Sonoma County, is the 16th AVA in Sonoma County and the fourth sub-appellation of the Sonoma Valley AVA.

The Moon Mountain District is located in a long, narrow region along the western slopes of the Mayacamas Mountain range between 400 and 600 feet in elevation.  The district has significantly cooler temperatures than the vineyards on the valley floor due to a bend in the adjacent Valley of the Moon which funnels cool breezes from the Pacific Ocean and San Pablo Bay around the area.

The Moon Mountain District covers 17,633 acres east if Highway 12.  There are currently 1,500 acres of commercial vineyards planted in the region. One of California’s most historic vineyards, the Monte Rosso Vineyard, originally planted in the late 1800’s, is part of the new AVA as well.

Welcome to the world!

To read the federal doucments regarding this new AVA, click here: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=TTB-2013-0002

Click here to return to the Society of Wine Educators Website

Best Selling Spirits in the World: 2013 Edition

What is the world drinkingThanks to  the good folks at Drinks International, we have a new ranking of the best-selling spirits brands in the world.  The products are fascinating…even a well-studied student of the Certified Specialist of Spirits Program might be surprised as to what people are drinking arouond the world.

Here is a list of the top-ten selling spirits in the world, with a bit of commentary for the curious:

1. Jinro Soju – There’s no mistake – Jinro Soju, produced in South Korea, is the best-selling spirit in the world.  In 2012, this clear, fresh soju sold 65.3 million 9-liter cases…that’s more than double the sales the of the product currently holding on to the number two spot.

2.  Emperador Brandy – Emperador Brandy, produced in the Philippines, has just about quadrupled its sales in the last few years.  Many people attribute this to a wildly successful advertising scheme that features images of success, affluence, and sophistication.

Tanduay_silver_LR3.  Smirnoff Vodka – Originally produced in the late 1890’s in Moscow, Smirnoff is now produced in several different countries, including the United States.

4.  Lotte Liquor BG Soju – Another South Korean Soju, Lotte Liquor BG Soju goes by the name “Chum-churum” in Korea.  The name means “like the first time” (“pure”) in Korean. As you can probably imagine, Lotte Liquor and Jinro are “arch rivals” in the  huge market for Soju.

5.  Ginebra San Miguel Gin – Produced in the Philippines, Ginebra San Miguel Gin is a “Dutch Style” gin made from a sugarcane spirit base and (of course) flavored with juniper.

6.  Bacardi Rum – Originally founded in Cuba but now known mostly for its flagship, crystal-clear Puerto Rican rum, Barcardi Rum is produced by the world’s largest privately-held, family-run liquor company in the world.

7.  Tanduay Asian Rum – Produced in the Philipines, Tanduay bills itself as “the original Asian Rum” and is made from sugarcane that can be traced back to “ancestral, wild canes” of sugar.

Whisky8.  McDowell’s No. 1 Whisky – A product of India, McDowell’s is marketed as a “Scotch-style Whisky,” meaning that the product is made from 100% grain (as opposed to some Indian whiskies, that are made partially or primarily from molasses.)

9.  Johnnie Walker Scotch Whisky – Originally known as Walker’s Kilmarnock Whisky, the Johnnie Walker brand was originally sold by John “Johnnie” Walker in his grocery store in Ayrshire, Scotland. The Johnnie Walker brand is now owned by Diageo.

10.  Pirassununga 51 Cachaça – Pirassununga 51 Cachaça is the market leader in Brazil for this popular liquor distilled from fermented sugar-cane juice.  Brazil’s national cocktail – the Capirinha, made with cachaça, sugar and lime – is beloved by Brazil’s 180 million people, and is growing on the rest of the world as well!  

You can download a full copy of the full report on the Drinks International Website…just click here!

September E-O-M Quiz: Cash and Prizes!

French Wine StoreAfter a one-month break for our Conference (when things just go crazy, you know…) we are back to our monthly quiz!

This month, our prize is great…you will receive one of the first “hot-off-the-presses” copies of our 2014 CSW Study Guide. The new CSW Study Guide will begin shipping in the middle of October, but our lucky winner will get to jump the gun by a few days.

Every month, we offer an end-of-the-month quiz (with prizes, of course) on the last day of the month. Quiz questions cover the educational material posted to Wine, Wit, and Wisdom for the month. This month’s quiz has 10 questions that cover the topics and information included in our posts for the month of September. Everything you need to know to pass the quiz is here on our blog!

To refresh your memory, our posts for the month of Selptember were:

  • Farewell, Vin de Pays du Jardin de la France (September 8)
  • The Stout Report:  Advice to a Young Wine Professional (September 11)
  • Chinato:  Cocchi or Cappellano? (September 15)
  • The Romance of Saint Amour (September 16)
  • The AVA Shuffle (September 22)
  • The Rheingau Falls in Line (September 23)
  • 1855:  It was a Very Good Year (September 28)

Everyone who takes and passes the quiz with 100% of the questions correct by October 8, 2013 (midnight CST) will have their names put into a drawing for the prize! You can take the quiz over and over again if you like…it’s all about the education! The winner will be notified via email on October 9! Click here for a link to the quiz. If you have any questions, contact us at: jnickles@societyofwineeducators.org .

Update:  Our contest winner this month is Cathey Love…a mobile dog groomer who drives her UPS-sized truck to clients home so that she can “listen to  whine all day and drink wine all night”!! Cathey, whom we met at this year’s SWE Conference in Orlando, is currently studying for her CSW Exam.  Congatualtions, Cathey – and good luck with your studies!

1855: It was a Very Good Year…

Bordeaux 1Its a familiar story to wine enthusiasts…in 1855, Napoleon III, the Emperor of France, decided that France would host an event to rival the Great Exhibition held in London four years earlier.  That event, the Exposition Universelle de Paris, would showcase all the glory that was France – including its finest wines.

One of the exhibitors was the Bordeaux Chamber of Commerce, which decided to feature a list of the region’s best wines. However, knowing better than to draw up the list themselves, they asked the Syndicat of Courtiers (Bordeaux’s Union of Wine Brokers) to draw one up.

It did not take the Syndicat long to think through the list; two weeks later, they were finished.  Their original list included 58 of the finest Châteaux of the Gironde department – four first growths, 12 seconds, 14 thirds, 11 fourths, and 17 fifths.   Apparently, the brokers did what brokers do:  they assigned the rankings based on price, reasoning that the market, in its infinite wisdom, had already ranked the wines based on who was commanding the highest price.  This move makes more sense if you know that in the 1850’s; the wine trade in Bordeaux was still largely controlled by the British.

bordeaux 2The Syndicat’s original list ranked the Châteaux by quality within each class. Mouton-Rothschild, quite famously, was at the head of the seconds.  However, the controversy concerning the entire list was such that by the time the Exposition rolled around, a few months after the list was first released, they had rescinded the quality listing within the categories, quickly claimed that no such hierarchy had ever been intended, and took to listing the Châteaux alphabetically.

As every good wine student knows, the only formal revision to the original list came in 1973, when, following a half-century of unceasing effort by Baron Philippe de Rothschild, Mouton was elevated from second-growth to first growth, and the winery’s motto became “Premier je suis, Second je fus, Mouton ne change.”  (“First, I am. Second, I used to be. Mouton does not change.”)

9.8-The-Haut-Medoc-4-color-[Converted]Since 1855, many changes have occurred in the names and ownership of the properties. However, as long as an estate can trace its lineage to an estate in the original classification, it can retain is cru classé status. Due to divisions of the estates, the 58 original estates now number 61.

And now for the rest of the story…

As any good CSW Student knows, Bill Lembeck, CWE, has designed the maps for the last few editions of the CSW Study Guide.

Next month, (Spoiler Alert) SWE will launch its 2014 version of the CSW Study Guide, and Bill has once again designed and updated the maps for us – this time in color! As a special bonus, Bill has created this map of the Häut-Médoc which gorgeously lists the Châteaux of the 1855 Classification.  A larger image and pdf of the map is available here.

Enjoy, and many thanks to Bill!

 

 

 

The Rheingau Falls in Line

Rheingau 1Here’s some good news:  as of September 1, 2013, the wine classification system in Germany just got a little bit easier.

With the release of the 2012 vintage, the Rheingau is now using the term “Grosses Gewächs” to indicate dry wines produced in their top-tier (Grosse Lage) vineyard sites.  Until recently, the Rheingau was the only region in the country to use the term “Erstes Gewächs” to represent their top-tier dry wines, but as of now, the Rheingau will use the same term as the rest of Germany.

Now, there is still quite a bit of complication to be sure, with the country’s gU’s, QbA’s and Prädikats, but at least for now there is one less piece of the VDP puzzle to figure out.

To explain the VDP – Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweinguter – classifications quite simply, they are the Association of German Prädikat Wine Estates – and their goal is to create a terroir-based classification of German vineyard sites, based on the system of vineyard classification used in Burgundy as their model. The idea is to use the quality of the vineyard site in addition to the ripeness of the grape (Prädikat) to define a top-tier German wine.

The levels of quality that an estate can apply for are as follows.   (Note: the method of comparing the VDP classificaton to the vineyard hierarchy of Burgundy is used on the VDP website and can be accessed here):

  • Grosse Lage, or “Great Site” – The highest classification, equal to a “Grand Cru” in Burgundy.  A dry wine from a Grosse Lage is termed a “Grosses Gewächs.”  (As noted above, until September 1, 2013, there was an exception for the top-tier dry wines of the Rheingau, which used the term Ertes Gewächs.  However, the Rheingau estates are now using the term “Grosses Gewächs” along with the rest of Germany – hooray!)
  • Rhengau 2Erste Lage, “First Site” or “Very Good Site”  – Comparable to a “Premier Cru” in Burgundy.
  • Ortswein, or “Classified Site Wine” –  Comparable to a “Village” level wine in Burgundy.
  • Gutswein, or “Estate Wine” – “Comparable to a “Regional” wine in Burgundy.

The 2012 vintage in the Rheingau was notortiously botrytis-free, showcasing grapes that have exceptional ripeness and excellent acidity – a perfect year to highlight the increasingly popular dry style.  We can’t wait to give them a try!

For more information, see the website of the VDP.

Please note:  SWE is trying to keep up with the ever-changing wine and spirits industry, whether it be changes in EU regulations, new AVAs, or newly approved wine regions in  the southern hemisphere.  To access the “quck version” of these updates, see our “Study Guide Updates” pages.  We suggest checking back regularly!

Click here to return to the SWE Website.

Post authored by Jane A. Nickles. CWE – jnickles@societyofwineeducators.org

 

 

The AVA Shuffle

New AVA 1The bureaucrats down at the TTB must have been hard at work lately processing the applications for more than 18 new AVAs.

Read on to learn the details of some of the more interesting proposals!

Big Valley District and Kelsey Bench – Lake County – Two new AVAs have been proposed for Lake County, CA; to be named Big Valley District – Lake County and Kelsy Bench – Lake County.

The Big Valley region is located on the south shore of Clear Lake and has a long history of agriculture (pears and walnuts) and viticulture.  The Kendall-Jackson winery is said to have had its beginnings in the area in 1974, when Jess Jackson and his wife purchased a Lake County farm and soon after planted their first vineyards.

The Kelsey Bench is located between Mt. Konocti, Lake County’s resident dormant volcano, and the alluvial flood plain on the lower elevations.  The proposed Kelsey Bench AVA understandably has primarily volcanic soils, higher elevations than the adjacent (proposed) Big Valley District, and northeastern exposures. The proposal for both new Lake County AVAs has reached the final ruling stage. To read all the documents related to these proposed AVAs, click here: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=TTB-2013-0003

Cabernet TopEagle Peak Mendocino County – A proposal to establish a new AVA to be known as Eagle Peak Mendocino County is in the final ruling stage.  Eagle Peak Mendocino County is proposed in an area of moderately sloping, hilly terrain at elevations from 800 feet to 3,320 feet up the slope of Eagle Summit.  Along with the new AVA, the proposal calls for the modification of the boundaries of the adjacent Redwood Valley AVA in order to avoid splitting two vineyard properties, Golden Vineyards and Masut Vineyards, between the Eagle Peak and Redwood Valley AVAs.  If the proposal passes, both properties would be within the Eagle Peak Mendocino County AVA. To read more about this proposal, click here:  http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=TTB-2013-0004

New AVA 3Paso Robles – After years of debate about the possible division of the Paso Robles AVA into North Paso Robles/South Paso Robles or even East Paso Robles/West Paso Robles sub-appellations, a proposal to establish eleven new AVAs within the existing Paso Robles AVA has made it to the “proposed rulemaking stage” of the AVA approval process.  If you have an opinion, now is the time to speak up! Public comments are welcome through January 21, 2014.  If all goes as planned, the new AVAs will be as follows:  Adelaida District,  Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles Estrella District, Paso Robles Geneseo District, Paso Robles Highlands District, Paso Robles Willow Creek District, San Juan Creek, San Miguel District, Santa Margarita Ranch, and Templeton Gap District. For all the details, click here:  http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail;D=TTB-2013-0009

If you would like to see all of the current AVA proposals on record with the TTB, just click here:  http://www.ttb.gov/wine/wine-rulemaking.shtml

 

The Romance of Saint Amour

Saint-AmourSaint Amour claims to be the most romantic of the Beaujolais Crus. It’s tough to argue with the “romance angle” when a wine’s name translates – literally- to “Saint Love” and loosely to “holy love,” “pure love,” or a variety of other equally delicious and romantic terms. Duboeuf describes their Saint Amour as “the wine of poets and lovers.”

According to the “Discover Beaujolais” website, more than 25% of the wine’s sales occur in February, around Valentine’s Day – most likely helped by the Smiling Cupids or hearts that adorn many of the labels.  Suffice it to say that, with both the cheery name and the reasonable price (about one-quarter of the cost of Pink Champagne) going for it, this wine is ready for romance.

Saint Amour is the northernmost Cru of the region, located where the granite soils of Beaujolais – so prized for the growing of Gamay – give way to the limestone soils of the Mâconnais to the north, better suited for the cultivation of Chardonnay.  Saint Amour actually borders the Saint-Véran AOC in the Mâcon, and many vignerons in the region own land and produce wine in both regions.

duboeuf sainat amourNot to quell the rumors of romance, but local lore actually suggests that the region was named after a Roman soldier rather than an angel of love. St. Amateur, the story goes, was a soldier of war who converted to Christianity after narrowly escaping death, and established a monastery overlooking the Saône River.

The wines of Saint Amour can be enjoyed while young, and while youthful often show aromas and flavors of cherry, berry, peach, apricot and spice. Most producers say the wines need at least a year to open up, and are at their supple best with two or three years of aging, when floral aromas start to shine. Some producers claim their Saint Amour is capable of producing vin de garde, wines suitable for aging, and can reveal their complex side anytime between four and 8 years after bottling.

Designated as a Cru in 1946, perhaps the wines of Saint Amour can remind us that love is grand in all its forms – through youth, middle age, and maturity – and that a good wine is always an excellent accompaniment to romance!

Discover Beaujolais:  http://www.discoverbeaujolais.com/

Duboeuf/Saint Amour:  http://www.duboeuf.com/en/page/Selection/Beaujolais-Fleurs-Saint-Amour#/en/page/Selection/Beaujolais-Fleurs-Saint-Amour

 

 

Chinato: Cocchi, or Cappellano?

cappellanoIf you love Italian wine, you can most likely discuss the intricacies of Brunello, Barbaresco, and Bardolino.  If you love Italian food, you probably crave Bolognese, Balsamic, and Burrata on a daily basis. But what can you tell us about Barolo Chinato?   

Don’t worry – you don’t have to give up your Italophile badge just yet.  Barolo Chinato is rare – it’s not exactly easy to find in America, despite it being more widely available than ever these days, thanks to the longevity of the craft cocktail craze and an ever-growing American fondness for all things Italian.

Barolo Chinato is digestive (equally qualified to serve as aperitif) produced in Piedmont, Italy created from a base of Barolo wine.  The word “china” (pronounced “key-na”) in Italian refers to “cinchona bark,” known to Americans as quinine. This, if we want to stay literal, Barolo Chinato (pronounced “key-not-o”) is Barolo wine that has been  infused with quinine bark and other herbs and spices. 

Technically, Barolo Chinato is considered a quinquina (an aperitif that contains cinchona bark) as well as an aromatized (flavored) wine.  With alcohol levels of 16.5 – 18%, Barolo Chinato may also be considered a fortified wine, as some of the flavorings may be added in the form of extracts produced using alcohol.

Cocchi ChinatoWhile the actual recipe of Chinato varies by producer and is a closely guarded secret, the flavorings are rumored to include sugar, rhubarb root, cinnamon, mint, vanilla, star anise, citrus peel, fennel, juniper, gentian root, and cardamom in addition to quinine. Don’t forget that all those layers of flavors are added to a base wine of Barolo – undisputedly one of Italy’s most complex wines to begin with. This is a smooth, spicy, flavorful sip with a hit of bitterness on the end – enough to wake up any appetite, or help smooth out an over-indulged one.

Barolo Chinato was first produced in the area around the city of Turin sometime in the 19th century.  By this time, companies like Martini & Rossi and Cinzano were already producing Vermouth and other aperitifs in the region.   

A Tuscan pastry chef named Giulio Cocchi is often cited as the inventor of Barolo Chinato.  After moving to Asti, he was inspired by the region’s vermouth industry and founded his winery in 1891. Soon after, he invented a formula for Barolo Chinato. Dr. Giuseppe Cappellano is also believed by many to the Barolo Chinato’s creator.  Dr. Cappellano was a pharmacist in Turin and the second son of the owner of the Cappellano Winery, which was founded in 1890.

Luckily, both companies are still around, and Barolo Chinato from both the Cappellano and Cocchi wineries are available in the United States. We may never decide who was first, you can decide for yourself who you think is best. 

While the debate rages on, there are a few things that fans of Barolo Chinato can agree on:  Barolo Chinato can help calm down a rumbly tummy after a hearty meal; it be used like an Amaro or Vermouth in a creative cocktail recipe, and it pairs very well with chocolate cake. 

Cappellano Barolo Chinato:  http://madrose.com/index.php/italy/piedmont/cappellano#barolo-chinato

Cocchi Barolo Chinato:  http://www.cocchi.it/eng/barolo_chinato.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Stout Report: Advice to a Young Wine Professional

SWE's new President, Guy Stout, MS

SWE’s new President, Guy Stout, MS, CSS, CWE

Our new President, Guy Stout, MS, CSS, CWE, has a few words of advice for young wine professionals!

The Stout Report: Advice to a Young Wine Professional

During a recent dinner with Master Sommelier Geoff Kruth, we were discussing how we, as established wine professionals, could advise the next generation of sommeliers and wine industry leaders. As you can imagine, it was quite a conversation!

Here are a few of our thoughts as to what skills and experiences could help young wine professionals be better at what they do, and help pave the way for a successful future. Here’s hoping someone out there is listening!

Travel: It’s the best thing you can do, both for your career and yourself.  My first ever visit to a vineyard was TV Munson’s experimental plot in Denison, Texas. The vineyard, which dates to the 1890’s, is next to a small airport landing strip, and it wasn’t at all what I expected.  When traveling, you never know what you may find.

Passion:  No one starts in the wine industry for the money (although that may come later). However, everyone starts in the wine industry because of a passion.  It’s a good thing, too, as I can teach wine, but I can’t teach passion

Grenache TopCognitive Thinking: Don’t just memorize grapes and places – it takes more than book smarts to grow in the wine trade. Read a book on bull riding, and then go ride a bull (just kidding about the bull.) You will, however, find out quickly that you didn’t really know a thing about bull riding until you felt that bull move.  For further insight, see “travel,” above.

Don‘t be a snob: Trust me, the world already has too many wine snobs.  You don’t want to be the person who always has a better bottle or vintage story (they get gossiped about behind their backs, they just don’t know it, and you didn’t hear that from me).  One for thing:  don’t be afraid to drink out of plastic cups – it won’t kill you!

Don’t worry if you get a wine wrong in a blind tasting: If you follow your tasting grid – either in your head or with a pencil and paper – you will get it “wrong for the right reasons” – and get it right the next time.

Share what you have: Wine is meant to be shared. The most memorable wines I have ever had were those I shared with friends.

Learn your limits: Don’t be the one who gets carried out of a big tasting by your friends. (Even more important: don’t be the one who gets kicked out.) This is very bad form and assures that you will be remembered – for all the wrong reasons.

wine and salmonLearn to cook: Knowing food and wine starts with knowing how to cook (and your friends will love you even more.) As we say in Texas, “Eat more chikin!” Burgers and Bordeaux makes for a great party, by the way!

Don’t get a visible tattoo: Ok, I am old school but truth be told, I don’t like to see tattoos on servers or somms.

The customer is always right: Even when they are wrong, and even when it hurts to admit it. But be advised – I have friends who have lost good jobs over this.

Taste with a group: Share the cost of wines, share your opinions, and make some friends (in a few years you can call them your “network”).

Ask Yourself: Why did you choose wine? Where do you hope it will lead you?

One final note:  Be kind to your mother – I have spent more than 30 years working in the wine & spirits industry and my mother still wants me to get a real job.

Cheers… Guy