Moonshine University Presents: BBQ and Bourbon Pairings!

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The air gets a little smokier in May as Americans fire up the grill for National Barbecue Month. For this summertime exercise, the team at Moonshine University, the epicenter of bourbon, looked at BBQ sauces from all over the U.S. and did a big taste testing to see which bourbons paired the best with each sauce. Let that stew in your work jealousy for a while. The Moonshine team tried each sauce with both pork and chicken and then narrowed down what bourbons to match to based off the initial tasting notes of the sauce. Here’s Moonshine University’s top BBQ and bourbon pairings.

Alabama White Sauce: This mayonnaise-based sauce hails from northern Alabama. Beyond mayo, this sauce includes: apple cider vinegar, sugar, salt and black pepper. We found the sauce to be very mayonnaise forward, much like ranch dressing with a slight vinegar tinge.

  • Bourbon Pairing: Booker’s – The higher proof of the Booker’s was mellowed out by the oil in the sauce, letting a lot of the flavors in the bourbon to come out in a way they didn’t on its own. We thought dialing back the alcohol burn really opened the bourbon and since the sauce wasn’t wildly flavorful, we didn’t feel anything was lost in the bourbon or in the sauce. It was a nice juxtaposition pairing : the mellowness of the sauce, with the boldness of the bourbon.

 South Carolina Mustard Sauce: This sauce, as the name would indicate, is a mustard-based sauce instead of your typical ketchup or tomato base. The flavor profile is like many of the red barbecue sauces, sweet and spicy. We loved this sauce. It was slightly sweet, a little tangy, and carried a nice balance between apple cider vinegar and mustard. It was loudly exclaimed by a member of the tasting panel, “Ain’t nothing wrong with that sauce!”

  • Bourbon Pairing: Maker’s Mark – Maker’s Mark was a perfect complement to this sauce. The sweetness of the bourbon matched the sweetness of the sauce just right and both flavor profiles complemented each other perfectly. Every time you took a sip after a bite or a bite after a sip, different flavors popped out, often blending together to create a tangy mustard with a sweet, subtle oak flavor. Leaving a light candy flavor aftertaste.
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Texas BBQ Sauce: While Texas has many different regions that all prepare their meat differently, we’re going to focus on the sauce. Texas BBQ sauce is one of the styles people traditionally think of when they think of BBQ sauce. It’s a tomato-based sauce sweetened with molasses or brown sugar. The sauce we ended up with was a mild sauce and not very spicy at all. It was very tomato forward with black pepper and other spices coming in mid-palate and leaving us with a spicy finish.

  • Bourbon Pairing: Woodford Reserve – We found that Woodford Reserve was the right proof and flavor profile to complement this sauce. The proof added a little heat to the somewhat mild sauce, so the kick up in spiciness was a nice addition. Not to mention the rye notes that come out in Woodford rounded out the sauce and gave it a spicy flavor throughout. The spiciness of the rye in the bourbon pair perfectly with the spices in the BBQ sauce. It is a combo that really brought out the best in each other.

North Carolina BBQ Sauce: The Carolinas know their BBQ and it’s evident by the showing of 3 different styles of sauces on this list.  The ketchup-based version would fall under the realm of a ‘traditional’ type of sauce.  This particular sauce was very sweet, had notes of molasses and was mild, but had a rich umami, or meaty, character to it.

  • Bourbon Pairing: Buffalo Trace – After taking a bite of BBQ with this North Carolina sauce on it and taking a sip of Buffalo Trace, something magical happens. This relationship birthed a completely new flavor that we didn’t pick out of the sauce or bourbon individually.  The two together brought out a smoky and oaky character that was fantastic. Plus, the bourbon lessened the intensity of the sweetness and allowed a caramel note to pop out. The flavors blended well with one another creating an entirely new, sauce and flavor.
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Eastern Carolina BBQ Sauce: This other offering from the Carolinas comes from the coast. This vinegar-based sauce is generally spicy.  Starting with vinegar instead of ketchup, this sauce is much thinner than all the others on this list, however everyone on the tasting panel was big fan of spicy and a big fan of this sauce.  It was vinegary, hot, spicy, bold with big flavors.  Overall a great and well-balanced sauce.

  • Bourbon Whiskey Pairing: Bulleit Rye – This is the only whiskey on our list that isn’t a bourbon, but when we tasted the sauce we knew what would pair perfectly, Bulleit Rye. Bulleit Rye has big, bold flavors that can hold up to the sauce.  Bulleit Rye has a delightful dill note, that when coupled with the sauce, gives the experience an almost pickle back note.  Generally, not something that would be desired, but with BBQ it’s a perfect flavor that gets created.  The bold flavor of the sauce and whiskey balance each other out and complemented each other perfectly.

Memphis BBQ Sauce: Memphis knows a thing or two about BBQ as well and is one of the most popular styles of BBQ. This sauce is a ketchup-based sauce that is generally sweet, peppery and a little peppery. Everyone enjoyed this style of sauce quite a bit. It hit every part of the mouth with a good flavor and it had a wide breadth of characteristics, not to mention the really nice pepper and coriander notes.

  • Bourbon Pairing: Wild Turkey 101 – A sauce with that much going on needs to be paired with a bourbon that has a whole lot going on too but in the same smooth, well-balanced way. That’s how we paired Wild Turkey 101 with this sauce. The Wild Turkey amplified all the best parts of the Memphis style sauce by adding nice, fruit notes, a subtle smoky note and gave the whole combination a full umami experience.  The 101 proof of the Wild Turkey was cut back by the sauce letting the flavors really come out. The combination also produced a delightful, sweet and spicy finish that lingered enjoyable on the tongue.
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The debate about which region has the best BBQ will carry on for years to come. Personally, we like them all. But the same debate happens in the bourbon industry as well. Again, no favorites here. But the Moonshine U tasting panel tried to find common ground by pairing two of our favorite things together into something we can all agree on. Cheers to National BBQ Month!

About Moonshine University: Moonshine University was founded by David Dafoe in 2013. The bourbon epicenter opened its doors on the Distilled Spirits Beverage Campus in Louisville, Kentucky to educate entrepreneurs on how to launch a successful distilling business from concept, to distilling, to bottling.  Moonshine University houses the Stave & Thief Society, a bourbon certification program. It was established to promote Kentucky’s distinguished bourbon culture. Stave & Thief Society will lead bourbon enthusiasts, restaurants, bars, hotels and retail employees to become Executive Bourbon Stewards through a standardized training program.

Thanks to Moonshine University for the press release. Photo credits: Phil Icsman.

 

Pizza Napoletana TSG (Traditional Status Guaranteed)

Photo by Valerio Capello via Wikimedia Commons

Photo by Valerio Capello via Wikimedia Commons

You know you love pizza…and as a wine aficionado, you most likely have a special regard for the most authentic of all pizzas, the Pizza Napoletana (sometimes referred to the Pizza Margherita). I have been known to drive for several hours just to try an authentic-style, wood-fired, burnt-around-the-edges-but-soft-in-the-middle Neapolitan-style pizza.

As it turns out, the powers that be at the European Union also agree that there is something special about Pizza Napoletana, and as of 2010, approved an application from the Associazione Pizzaiuoli Napoletani to grant Pizza Napoletana the protected product status of “Traditional Status Guaranteed” (TSG).

Unlike the well-known PDO or PGI protections, TSG protection does not necessarily link a product to a specific geographical area, but rather acknowledges that the item is of a clearly defined “specific character” and that its raw materials and/or production method is traditional. In this case, “traditional” is defined as having been used for at least 30 years, and in a way that allows for transmission between generations.

TSG designation means that the registered product name may only be used by those producers who follow the published standards for the product—in this case, the specifications will confirm that the pizza is indeed prodotta secondo la tradizione Napoletana (produced in the Neapolitan tradition).

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The specifications for Pizza Napoletana fill a nine-page document; however, the main requirements include the following:

  • The pizza is round, with a raised rim, and a diameter not exceeding 35 cm (13.74 inches)
  • It is made according to a specific dough recipe (for both ingredients and procedures)
  • It is garnished with—and only with—Mozzarella di Bufala Campana AOC or Mozzarella STG.* fresh basil, crushed and peeled San Marino tomatoes, extra virgin olive oil, and salt—the layering of which is defined up to and including the “spiraling motion” used to spread the tomatoes and sprinkle the salt
  • It is baked in a wood-fired pizza oven
  • The overall pizza must be tender, elastic and easily foldable into four

This sentence, taken directly from the regulations, kind of says it all: “When the baking process is complete the pizza emits a characteristic aroma which is deliciously fragrant; the tomatoes, which have lost only their excess water, remain compact and solid; the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana AOC or the Mozzarella STG appear melted on the surface of the pizza and the basil, together with the garlic and the oregano, emits an intense aroma without appearing to be burnt.”

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I, for one, love the fact that the EU regulations remind us that “the Pizza Napoletana should preferably be consumed immediately, as soon as it comes out of the oven, in the same location as it was produced.”

Other TSG-certified products include Spain’s Jamón Serrano, Portugal’s Bacalhau, and the United Kingdom’s Bramley Apple Pie filling.

If you would like to learn more about traditional Pizza Napoletana as well as some of the fascinating wines, foods, and spirits of Naples and the surrounding area, join us for our upcoming “Taste-along SWEbinar” on the Wine and Food of Naples!

References/for more information:

*STG is a grand-fathered version of the “TSG” designation.

Post authored by Jane A. Nickles, CSE, CWE – your blog administrator

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Zakynthos, Verdea, and Skiadopoulo

Map of the Ionian Islands (via Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain

Map of the Ionian Islands (via Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain)

Zakynthos, Verdea, and Skiadopoulo…if it all sounds like gibberish to you, it you are not alone. However, as convoluted as these words may sound (to the unaccustomed ear), they are meaningful to aficionados and students of wine. Read on to find out the meaning of these terms!

For starters—Zakynthos: If you know your Greek geography, perhaps you recognized Zakynthos (also known as Zante) as one of the Ionian Islands. Located in the eastern part of the Ionian Sea, Zakynthos is about 12 miles (20 km) west of the Greek mainland. The island is said to have the shape of an arrowhead, and is about 25 miles (40 km) long and 12 miles (20 km) wide. The island is a popular tourist destination, with over 76 miles (123 km) of coastline and a mild, Mediterranean climate.

The island’s climate and topography (a mountainous plateau to the west and flat, fertile plains interrupted by isolated hills in the east) also provide for an abundance of lush agriculture. Olive oil, citrus fruit, wine grapes (more on this later), and the eponymous Zante currant are among the island’s leading agricultural products. Zante currants are the dried berries of the small and seedless Black Corinth (vinifera) grape variety. Greece produces over 80% of the world’s currants and Zante currants (Stafida Zakynthou) are a PDO product of Greece.

FYI: The Ionian Islands are traditionally called “the Seven Islands” (although the group includes several smaller islands in addition to the seven main islands). Zakynthos is the third largest of the Ionian islands; the others include Kerkyra (Corfu in English), Paxi (Paxos), Lefkada (Lefkas), Ithaki (Ithaca), Kefalonia (Cephalonia), and Kythira (Cythera).

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Next up—Verdea: Wine lovers surely recognized the name of several of the Ionain Islands, as wine production is a main part of the islands’ history, traditions, and economy. Kefalonia (Cephalonia), the home of the Robola OPAP (PDO) region, is perhaps the most well-known of the seven islands in terms of wine production.

However, Zakynthos has its own claim to fame as the birthplace of Verdea, a Traditional Designation (onomasía kata oínos [OKP]) white wine produced on the island since the nineteenth century. The name “Verdea” is thought to be derived from verde, the Italian word for green (Zakynthos was once a part of the Venetian Empire). Verde is both a description of the color of the grapes, as well as an indication that under-ripe grapes were often used in order to produce a high-acid wine.

Traditionally, Verdea was a very acidic, dry white wine that was extensively aged in oak barrels—to the point where the wine was amber in color and oxidized. In modern times, the wines are produced in a more moderate style while still (in most cases) maintaining the oxidized “edge.” Verdea must be made from grapes grown on the island of Zakynthos and must be produced on the island; however, it may be bottled off the island. Verdea received its OKP designation in 1992.

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There are only two Greek wines entitled to the PGI category of onomasía kata oínos [OKP]: Verdea and Retsina (the traditional pine-scented wine of ancient Greece). The OKP designation protects both the name and the production method of these wines.

While Verdea is by far most important wine made on the island of Zakynthos, a small amount of red wines (primarily made with Avgoustiatis and Xynomavro grapes) are also produced. Lianoroidi, a sweet white wine made from a range of grapes, is another specialty of the island.

Finally—Skiadopoulo: Verdea is based on a blend of grapes. An ancient list contains up to 34 varieties that are (or were) planted on the island of Zakynthos. While all of the white grapes planted on the island are permitted to be used in Verdea, the majority (minimum 50%) must be of the Skiadopoulo variety. Skiadopoulo is a vigorous, high-yield vine that is capable of producing very sweet, ripe grapes. It is grown throughout the Ionian Islands and used in a range of white wine styles. Other grapes that are most often a part of the Verdea blend include Pavlos, Robola, and Goustolidi.

References/for more information:

Post authored by Jane A. Nickles, CSE, CWE – your blog administrator

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Alternative Grains in American Whiskey

Today we have a guest post from Lisa Graziano CSW, CSE. Lisa tells us about a new trend—using alternative grains in American Whiskeys!

Triticale in the fields

Triticale in the fields

Whiskey can be made from any kind of grain.  Most whiskeys use a majority of malted barley—but it does not have to be this way! The All-American favorite, Bourbon, is required to consist of a minimum 51% corn; generally, the remainder of the mash bill will be wheat, rye and/or barley.

Happily, the craft spirits movement in the U.S. is booming and as a result there is a lot of experimentation going on throughout American whiskey culture.

Enter exotic grains to the mix.  Quinoa, touted lately as power grain for its health benefits, also makes a fine whiskey.  Triticale, a wheat-rye hybrid developed in Scotland and Sweden in the late 1800s, is also being distilled with excellent results.  Oats are being distilled along with the less-common red and blue corn varieties.

How do these different grains affect the flavor of the whiskies made from them?

Let’s start with quinoa.  Feisty Spirits in Colorado makes a 100% quinoa-based whiskey which delivers a nose that is grainy with hints of chili peppers.  The flavor is actually somewhat gin like with some chili pepper and rich grain aspects on the finish.  This whiskey is aged ever-so-briefly in oak barrels—it’s actually called a “barrel rinse,” to be specific.

Quinoa fields in Ecuador

Quinoa fields in Ecuador

Feisty Spirits, located about 65 miles north of Denver, specializes in exotic grain whiskies making everything from quinoa, triticale, and cocoa-ginger whiskeys to a red, white, and blue corn whiskey that is limited production and distributed around the fourth of July.  Dry Fly Distilling out of Washington State and Corsair Distillery located in Tennessee and Kentucky also make exotic grain whiskies.

Triticale whiskey gives aromas of golden raisins on the nose and when aged in neutral barrels conveys flavors of caramel, honey and raisins with a smooth sweet finish.  It is more like an Irish whiskey, and both Feisty Spirits and Dry Fly Distilling make triticale whiskies.

If you like oatmeal, you need to try an oat whiskey.  These spirits exude a nutty oatmeal quality and a rich creaminess that is delightful.  Koval Distillery out of Chicago and High West Distillery in Utah both make nice examples of oat whiskies.

photo via: http://blog.balconesdistilling.com/

photo via: http://blog.balconesdistilling.com/

For different corn whiskies turn to Colorado and Texas.  Balcones Distilling in Waco, Texas makes a Baby Blue Corn Whiskey and Feisty Spirits makes an assortment of red, white, and blue corn whiskies.  Blue corn gives flavors of sweet hazelnuts and is softer than the red and white varieties.  Red corn gives flavors of caramel corn and is drier on the finish than its counterparts.

Another trend in whiskey making is using hops.  It was bound to happen at some point—the craft beer movement has finally spilled over into whiskey!  Feisty Spirits makes a Hop Schnapps and Corsair Distillery makes Hop Monster Whiskey.  These spirits really mess with your nose—smells like beer, tastes like whiskey!  They have great aromatics and a dry finish with various flavors depending on what kind of hops are used and how they are brewed.

For an interesting read and an education in exotic grains in whiskey go to the book “Alt Whiskeys” by Darek Bell, owner of Corsair Distillery.  He gives a partial list of alternative grains that includes many of which I have never heard!  (E.g.:  Teff, Fonio, Job’s Tears and Emmer, to name a few.)  He also includes the recipes for many of his whiskies with the caveat that “Home distilling is illegal in the US. Period.”

With craft spirits hitting their stride now is the time to try some of these unique offerings made from grains you would never have expected to be made into whiskey.   Slainte!

Lisa Graziano has been in the wine and spirits business for the past 10 years.  Originally from Los Angeles, California she previously worked as a professional harpist and realtor.  She is one of the first to earn the CSE certification and having grown up in a European household has a nearly lifelong education in beer, wine and spirits!

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Guest Post: Field to Glass – The Re-emergence of the American Farm Distillery

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Field to Glass… The Re-emergence of the American Farm Distillery – by Elizabeth Miller, CSW, CSS

Estate-bottled.  Terroir.  In the wine world these have long been terms that evoke respect for certain bottles and fetch higher prices.  It’s significantly less typical to see an estate bottled spirit, where all the variables of production occur in the same location… until recently!  Thanks to the reemergence of the farm distillery, gazing out from the distillery tasting room on a field of grains is now a more common experience for the spirits lover.

The movement goes by many names: grain to bottle, farm to glass, field to bottle.  Whichever the term, distilleries are now embracing farming and producing real land-based products.

Every bottle starts at the beginning: the base ingredient.  If you are a distiller in the United States or a famous whiskey producing country like Scotland and Ireland, you likely do not grow your own base ingredients or even source it close to your distillery.  You say to your broker, “I need this grain, or that botanical.”  The farm distillery eliminates that degree of separation.

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However, at Coppersea Distillery in Ulster County, New York, fallow and weed-choked pastures have been reclaimed for grains that produce their corn, bourbon, rye and barley whiskey. We really shouldn’t be surprised!  The farm distillery is the natural outgrowth of the craft distilling renaissance.  It’s becoming difficult to choose from the explosion of spirits choices at your favorite bar or retailer.  Favorable state legislation plus a powerful locavore movement has produced a boom in distilling licenses throughout the country.  Of those new craft distilleries, the American Distilling Institute found over 10% now are farm distilleries that either grow their own base ingredients or source them from local farms.

While the farm distillery seems new, it’s really a return to the beginning.  Long before the first American commercial whiskey distillery was founded in 1783 in Louisville, Kentucky, farmers were finding extra profits in their grains.  European colonists had arrived to America with the practice of whiskey making, and distilling bumper crops was both profitable and efficient.  The spirits could be stored almost indefinitely and it was easier to store and transport compared to enormous bales of grain.

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Breadbasket regions became home to hundreds and hundreds of distilleries.  In New York, where more than 1 million bushels of barley were being harvested in the 19th century, over 1000 farm distilleries flourished. Prohibition, however, ended this era, and the breadbasket regions of American ran dry… until today.  The Staley Mill Farm & Distillery in New Carlisle, Ohio—family owned since 1818—ran their handmade copper still long before Prohibition.  In the next few years, their 160-acre farm will yield organic corn and rye to fully supply their resurrected distillery.

The farm distillery is not the easy street.  There are substantial time and financial investments in purchasing seeds, field conditioning and procuring equipment.  Carefully planned harvesting, drying practices, finely calibrated humidity control, storage and transportation are all crucial to the final product and the bottom line – but the risks are worth it!

A farmer distiller has complete creative control, and can introduce something previously attributed only to wine: terroir.  Dave Pickerell, formerly Master Distiller at Maker’s Mark and Whistle Pig, is currently with Hillrock Estate Distillery in the Hudson Valley Highlands where 100 estate-owned grain fields surround the craft distillery.  In the Whiskey Advocate in 2010, Pickerell wrote of the uniform expression of whiskey by most of the major distillers, who all buy commodity grain.  His vision of the future includes “new expressions of whiskey… representing a new sort of terroir, where true geographical differences in the U.S. can not only be expressed but also clearly differentiated.”

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Spirits lovers can expect a continued deeper connection to the land in their bottles, from one corner of the United States to another.  In Colorado’s North Fork Valley, the Jack Rabbit Hill and Peak Spirits farm and distillery is practicing biodynamic farming.  The Barber family celebrates six generations on their 158 year-old farm in Schoharie Valley, New York.  Their distillery turns out their 1857 Vodka from not only their own potatoes but also the property’s spring water.  Estate owned malt houses and the propagation of heirloom grains are just a few perks we should expect from the growing farm distillery movement.

The next time we open a bottle, we can expect so much more, thanks to the reemergence of farm distilleries.  We can expect the taste of history, the taste of America and true taste of fields of grain.

Elizabeth Miller is the General Manager of Vintology Wine & Spirits and the Associate Director the Westchester Wine School in Westchester County, NY.  She has very happily traveled extensively throughout New York State visiting farm and urban distilleries.  Her blog ‘Girl Meets Vine’ is found at http://www.elizabethmillerwine.com/girlmeetsvine.

 

Searching for the Origins of Fermented Beverages

Today we have a guest post written by David Glancy, MS, CSS, CWE. David dives into the ancient origins of wine and beer, and tells us about an upcoming event at his San Francisco Wine School. Read on!

Photo of Dr. Patrick McGovern by Alison Dunlop

Photo of Dr. Patrick McGovern by Alison Dunlop

Archaeologists have never been so cool. Dr. Pat (Patrick McGovern) is the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. He is often referred to as the world’s leading archeologist of fermented beverage, a career path my high school counselor failed to mention. When he’s not in his office at the University of Pennsylvania he is often wandering the Caucasus from Russia to the Middle East, or exploring a tomb in Egypt or a new dig in some remote mountain in China. And between all of these places he has found the oldest scientifically verified fermented beverage and wine (for now). Who knows what else he might find as he keeps digging.

That beer is old! In 2004 Dr. Pat and his colleagues documented the oldest fermented beverage. They carbon dated and DNA tested scrapings from pottery shards. It turns out that China’s thirst for beer is not new (#1 beer consuming nation). This beer dated back to 7,000 BC and was found at a Neolithic Chinese site called Jiahu. It is in southwestern Henan Province, China, on the east slopes of Fuliu Mountain. It was a grog made from rice, grapes and/or hawthorn fruit, and honey. Sam Calagione, brewer/owner of Dogfish Head Brewery in Delaware has made an interpretation of this ancient brew with Dr. Pat as a consultant.

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The birthplace of wine made from grapes seems to be from the Caucasus. The Greater Caucasus stretch from Russia through the Georgian Republic to Armenia and Azerbaijan with stops in between. The Lesser Caucasus include Turkey and Iran, but ancient winemaking seemingly wandered from there to the Mediterranean with noted production in modern day Iraq, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Egypt.

Dr. Pat and his colleagues found the oldest wine, too. Once again, they were digging, scraping and lab testing. The wine residue they found dated back to 5,400 BC and was found at another Neolithic site (Hajji Firuz) in the northwestern Zagros Mountains of Iran. Six jars of the same shape, each with a volume of about 9 liters, were found lined up and set into the floor of a “kitchen” in a square mudbrick house.

Here is an overview of several of the wine producing countries of the Caucasus and Middle East.

  • An Armenian Wine Renaissance is under way. There are over 100 grape varieties being grown today in Ararat, Armavir and other regions of Armenia but much attention is being paid to an ancient variety, Areni Noir. Grape growing and winemaking were minimal after Armenia’s independence from the former Soviet Union, but today small producers are breathing new life into the industry from Armenian nationals to flying winemakers like Paul Hobbs.
  • Georgia has over 500 grape varieties being grown today and the industry is growing. By far the most widely planted variety is Rkatsiteli, a white grape. There are also several variations of a white grape called Mtsvane. The leading red grape is Saperavi. Wine is made in Kakheti and many other regions of Georgia.
  • Lebanon has continued to make wine despite many years of warfare. Winemaking has been practiced in the Bekaa Valley for over 6,000 years. There are roughly 40 wineries and Chateau Musar is one of the most famous. Many international grape varieties are grown here along with the local Obaideh and Merwah.
The Golan Heights Winery; Katzrin, Israel

The Golan Heights Winery; Katzrin, Israel

  • Israel also has produced wine for thousands of years though most of their 100+ wineries started in the last few decades. The five official wine regions are Galilee-Golan, Shomron, Samson, Judean Hills and  Negev. Production has shifted from white to red wine from many varieties including Bordeaux and Tuscan grapes.
  • Palestine is producing wine against all odds. There is minimal production despite thousands of years of history of growing grapes here. The few vineyards are in the area around Bethlehem and Hebron in Palestinian territories between Israel and Jordan. Baladi, Dabouki, Jandali and Hamdani grapes are the main focus.
  • Turkey largely focuses on indigenous grapes. Sultaniye, Öküzgözü and Bo€azkere grapes are the most widely grown but Shiraz is also widely planted. There are over 1 million acres of vineyards in this large country but a good deal produces fresh and dried fruit, not just wine. There are over 600 unique grape varieties here and the majority of the vineyards are in the region of Thrace, along the Sea of Marmara, near Greece and Bulgaria.

All of these topics and more will be covered in depth at the upcoming Cradle of Wine Civilization Event at the San Francisco Wine School, to be held in South San Francisco on March 13. The day’s events will include 4 seminars, 14 panelists and speakers from around the world, wines from Armenia, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Turkey; a multi-cultural lunch with the winemakers, walk-around grand tasting, and an ancient brews happy hour. Click here for more information!

 

 

 

 

Saké…A Practical Guide

Today we have a guest post from Mark Rashap, CWE who, fresh from a holiday trip to Japan, gives us a practical guide to sake. Enjoy!

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I hope you were able to read, enjoy, and garner some sight from my previous saké post, Tasting Saké from a … Champagne Perspective.  Focusing more on the sensory perception and the metaphorical side of saké, I left the practical and general explanation of saké for this post.  I hope to distill the pertinent information about the uniqueness of production, variety of styles, and different classifications that are important for any beverage professional in the US to know and understand.  For a more comprehensive yet still manageable guide, I would recommend John Gaunter’s The Saké Handbook.

Let us first tackle the differences in production from that of wine and beer.  First and foremost, all fruit, during their ripening cycle, naturally produce fermentable sugars (glucose and fructose).  This is obvious because when you taste fruit before fermentation, it will be sweet on the palate.  Grains are made up of starches, or long chain carbohydrates, that must be broken down through a process called saccharification.  In beer production, this is done in the mash by mixing water and grain, mostly barley, at various relatively high temperatures.  Enzymes in the grains are activated to break down the starches, then the sweet liquid is cooled so alcoholic fermentation can occur.  In saké production, rice grain cannot go through saccharification on its own, so a mold called Kōji-Kin (the Kōji is steamed rice plus the Kōji-Kin) is added and, under very controlled circumstances, winds up permeating the entire batch (or Moromi).  Because this saccharification happens at temperatures equivalent to those for alcoholic fermentation, both processes can and must happen simultaneously in the same vessel.

You might read very detailed accounts of how the Kōji is made, such as being cultivated in small slotted boxes and moved around every hour. All this is done so the mold is properly developed and consistently permeates the entire Kōji.  Additionally, a yeast starter, or Moto, occurs separately to ensure a healthy yeast population.  However, don’t let all this Japanese pomp and circumstance confuse you; all these processes are done simply to create a batch that has fully functioning saccharification and fermentation at the same time.  Every brewery does things slightly different, but this is the take home point.

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Let’s review: rice is polished (more on this later).  It is washed, soaked, and steamed.  Part of it goes to the Kōji and part of it goes to the yeast starter.  These two separate batches are incrementally combined along with more water to ensure consistent mixing.  Saccharification and fermentation occur simultaneously for anywhere between 18-32 days.  It is pressed, usually filtered, usually watered back from 20 to 16 percent ABV, usually pasteurized twice, and bottled.  Violá!  When any of those “usuallys” don’t occur, there is a different name described below.

Now that you have the general idea of production, let’s talk about some variations and classifications.  All saké is classified as either Junmai, which means strictly made from water, yeast, kōji, and rice, or as Honjōzō, which has a small amount of brewer’s alcohol added just before pressing.  In my tastings, Junmai saké tends to have more delicate, pure, and subtle flavors, and Honjōzō sakés tend to be a bit fuller and rougher around the edges which might be desired in some situations.

The next uber-important variation of production is the amount of polishing before the brewing takes place.  With the varieties of rice commonly used for premium saké production, there are proteins, fats, and minerals occupying the outer layers of the rice grain that tend to cause off flavors in the finished saké.  Therefore, the outer layers are polished away to reveal the pure starches in the center of the grain.  It is easy to get confused by the percentage that is removed vs. the percentage left behind, so it is a good idea to get in the habit of referring to the polish as a percentage of what is left behind because that’s how the Japanese categorize it (called the Seimaibuai).  So, table rice will have a polish leaving 90% rice behind, cheap saké will be 80%, and most general saké is 70%.  Now for the important terms:  Ginjo is 60-50% left behind, and Daiginjo is between 50-35%.  So, the yields can be very low, and for the very best sakés only 35% of the grain remains after polishing!

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So, to reinforce our understanding of this, within the Junmai (no distilled alcohol added) category: 70-60% grain remaining is simply called Junmai, 60-50% is Junmai Ginjo, and 50-35% is Junmai Daiginjo.  Within the category of Honjōzō (which is brewed with added distilled alcohol), simple Honjōzō is 70-60%, Ginjo (notice you don’t say Honjōzōginjo, it’s just Ginjo) is 60-50% polish, and Daiginjo is 50-35%.  I supposed you need to taste the difference between all these different categories for yourself for it to really sink in; do it comparatively just like when you’re trying to grasp the difference between Burgundy and Cali Pinot Noir.

Now there are a myriad of other styles, most of which are quite obscure, but there are a number worth detailing:

  • Nigori (cloudy):  this is saké that is unfiltered or filtered using a rough mesh.  The rice sediment left behind does give a sweeter profile.
  • Taru Saké: Sake which is aged in cedar barrels and has a woodsy aroma
  • Namazaké: unpasteurized saké.  This must be kept cold or else a haze and undesirable aromas will form.  It is thought of as fresher and livelier.
  • Tokubetsu (special):  bottles do not have to indicate what is special, but is usually a higher grade seimaibuai (polish) or special variety of rice.
  • Genshu: saké to which no water was added to bring down the alcohol to 16%.  These usually have 20% alcohol and have more robust flavors.  Popular as Genshu on the rocks.

It is easy to get wrapped up in all the minor details making understanding saké seem like an unattainable goal.  However, I believe that the information in this post will be a great foundation around which you can start to recognize the most important production terms on the label and make an educated guess as to what will be in the glass.  Of course, just like wine, we need to not be afraid of a different language, taste a wide variety of saké styles, take notes, and retain that information.  I hope that will be fun and rewarding!

MarkPost authored by Mark Rashap, CWE. Mark has, over the past ten years, been in the wine world in a number of capacities including studying wine management in Buenos Aires, being an assistant winemaker at Nota Bene Cellars in Washington State, founding his own wine brokerage, and working for Texas-based retail giant Spec’s as an educator for the staff and public.

In August of 2015, Mark joined the team of the Society of Wine Educators as Marketing Coordinator to foster wine education across the country.

Are you interested in being a guest blogger or a guest SWEbinar presenter for SWE?  Click here for more information!

Tasting Saké from a … Champagne Perspective

Today we have a guest post from Mark Rashap, CWE. Mark has some insights about tasting saké in the context of the language of Champagne, and shares some of his adventures from his latest trip to Japan.

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Saké has always been sort of an enigma for me.  I’ve liked it and attended many classes and conference seminars on it; however, there’s something utterly confusing about the dizzying Japanese characters and multitude of production techniques.  It has always seemed like I’ve lacked the vocabulary for describing the subtle and elusive flavors, as well as not being able to correlate those flavors to a particular place or terroir.

Here’s where the enigma deepens: is this not essentially our goal as wine tasters? We try to see how the terroir speaks to us out of the glass, discern whether it is typical or atypical of that region, attempt to understand why by digging into the growing and production techniques, and the world goes on.

Saké, however, abides by different rules and should be thought of more in terms of “house style” instead of terroir, not unlike the large negociant houses in Champagne.  In fact, the more I thought of saké in terms of Champagne, the more insight I gained in understanding this ethereal beverage. With this understanding, I was able to develop a vocabulary around which to describe sakes previously elusive aromas and flavors.

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This is not to say that a sense of place is not important in sake. Granted, the rice, albeit from specified varieties grown for saké, does not have to come from any region in particular and is often shipped all around the country.  However, certain saké breweries (Kura) have congregated around areas known for pure and reliable water supplies, such as the Fushimi area in south Kyoto and the mountainous area of Niigata.  Additionally, there is some regional component to the Saké brewer (Toji) guilds.  Nevertheless, there are no AOC–type rules to preserve regionality or history, and we can confidently say that the mark of the Toji is the most defining factor in the quality and subtlety of the final product.  This is not unlike the Negociant houses of Champagne priding their flavor and style around the blending skill of Chef de Cave or their unique house yeast strain.

Real Japanese Saké, or Nihonshu (technically “saké” is just the Japanese work for alcohol in general), has an identity crisis in the US.  The process is most similar to brewing beer; however, the lack of carbonation, alcohol content, potential complexity of flavors, and ability to pair with various food align more with wine.  However, when we start seeing descriptions such as nuts, red fruit, flowers, and yeastiness in describing a clear and pristine liquid, it is all to reminiscent of Champagne.  I’m particularly talking about Junmai, which does not have alcohol added and consists of only rice, water, yeast, and kōji (the mold that converts the starch in rice to fermentable sugar), and Ginjōshu, meaning the rice was polished, removing 40-65% of the outer layer of rice (this is where the impurities are found).

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John Gaunter, one of the best resources on Saké in the English language, writes in his Saké Handbook, “A vast number of words describe the kaori, or fragrance of a saké.  These are often simple fruit, flower, or rice-like sensations, with esters, earthy tones, and herbal notes as well.”  Additionally, he frequently uses terms such as “austere” on one end of the spectrum and “gentle and soft” on the other, Krug vs Perrier Jouët perhaps?

In relationship to acidity in sake (which is much lower than in the world of Champagne), Gaunter writes, “a higher acidity often makes a sweeter saké taste more dry, while a lower acidity can make a saké seem heavier on the palate.”  Sounds like the acidity/dosage balance that Champagne winemakers strive for come disgorgment time.  In the Saké Handbook, Gaunter gives over 50 recommended sakés with descriptions and for each and every one, you could replace the word saké for Champagne, and it would still make sense.

This link to Champagne really helped me in a recent visit to the Fushimi district of Kyoto, where I tasted almost all of the 17 breweries there.  I am constantly befuddled and enamored by the sakés (and Champagnes) that show the red fruit and plum aromas commonly found in the villages of Aÿ, Ambonnay, and the greater

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Montagne de Reims.  I found the Shoutoku brewery with their famous Junmai’s to pertain to this style.  Furthermore, I tasted many sakés that showed an austerity, earthiness, chalkiness, and white flowers that is haunting and quintessential of Les Mesnil Sur Oger and the greater Cotes de Blanc.  Kinshi Masamune pertaining to this camp.  Practically ever saké I tasted reminded me of something in the world of Champagne, either a village or producers or flavor I tasted once upon a time.

As wine professionals, we should strive to continuously improve our vocabulary in the way that makes sense for us.  Whether this means using Ann Noble’s Wine Aroma Wheel or Matt Kramer’s intangibles of insight, harmony, and surprise.  In my opinion, studying Champagne and learning to describe it, which should be an absolute pleasure for all of us, trains us to bridge these lexicons and identify the tangibles of yeast, nuts, floral and fruit components as well as speaking in metaphor, because there is an undeniable other-worldliness of Champagne.  To my knowledge, I have never read of the saké-Champagne link before and can consider it an original concept.  My only hope in writing about this is that it helps you engage in the world of saké with a certain familiarity and comfort, ultimately allowing you to further explore its complexity of flavors and aromas.  I’d love to hear if you agree!

MarkPost authored by Mark Rashap, CWE. Mark has, over the past ten years, been in the wine world in a number of capacities including studying wine management in Buenos Aires, being an assistant winemaker at Nota Bene Cellars in Washington State, founding his own wine brokerage, and working for Texas-based retail giant Spec’s as an educator for the staff and public.

In August of 2015, Mark joined the team of the Society of Wine Educators as Marketing Coordinator to foster wine education across the country.

Are you interested in being a guest blogger or a guest SWEbinar presenter for SWE?  Click here for more information!

 

Politics, Grapes, and Wine’s Carbon Footprint

Today we have a guest post from Mark Rashap, CWE. Mark tells us about the environmental impact of the wine industry, and what can be done to  minimize the carbon footprint of wine. 

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Last year’s Paris Climate Conference—COP21—can perhaps best be described as a bumpy ride at best. There were several political sticking points, including financing the reforms needed to combat climate change and holding developing countries to the same standards as developed countries. In the end, the media was left trying to make sense of whether any true progress occurred toward the goal to cap the global average temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius.

This type of global bickering might seem laughable to the small time grape grower, but many in the wine business—from small wineries to regional associations—are attempting to take substantial steps reduce their carbon footprint, and perhaps, by doing so, help the cause of global warming. At the very least, the COP21 got the world talking about and focusing on carbon emissions, so let’s do our part and look at what stages of the winemaking process cause green house gases (GHG) and what progressive wineries are doing to combat them.

Starting in the vineyard, we see that the pure act of growing grapes, as well as agriculture in general, has the ability to absorb carbon and GHGs.  In 2015, a case study based in several Tasmanian vineyards did an incredible job at targeting the GHGs produced by wine production and recommendations to limit them.  They estimated that on average growing grapes produces 1.5 tons of CO2e (carbon equivalents) per hectare per year which is only 1-2% of the emissions of the total wine production.  While this is obviously a small percentage of the total GHG production, there are definitely ways to reduce this.  The largest culprit by far is the fuel needed to power vineyard equipment such as tractors, sprayers, and plows, which account for 55-90% of total vineyard emissions. Any way to limit the passing of this equipment through the vineyard is the most effective first step and can include: applying fertilizers through the drip irrigation system, sowing low growth grasses in between the rows, allowing animals to graze on these grasses, updating equipment for fuel efficiency, etc.

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The next biggest culprit, producing up to 30% of vineyard GHG production, is the electricity needed mostly to power pumps for irrigation.  Therefore, vineyard managers must make sure that their pumps are efficient and not wasting water where it is not needed.  Additionally, the use of mulches and various organic matter applications that aid in soil moisture retention will reduce reliance on the irrigation pumps.  Organic and biodynamic viticulture also avoids the use of inorganic Nitrogen based fertilizer, which can breakdown in the soil and produce Nitrous Oxide, a GHG that is 298 times as harmful as Carbon Dioxide (expressed as 298 CO2e).

During the COP21 climate talks, there was one session focused on wine production with representatives from Fetzer, Concha y Toro, Moët Chandon, Smith Haute Lafitte, and Château Maris.  Fetzer pledged to be carbon neutral by 2016.  Their facility runs 100% on solar and renewable energy, by way of 75,000 square feet of solar panels on the roof.  They are aiming to be zero waste, based on their efforts in composting, super-efficient cleaning systems, and treating waste water.

Packaging and transportation is considered the main contributor to GHGs for the wine industry.  As far as packaging, the fabrication of the bottle is the biggest cause of emissions; however, reducing the weight and increasing the percentage of recycled material will limit the impact.  In Champagne, the CIVC has introduced a new lighter weight bottle that that almost all wineries have adopted.  This change – from 900 g to 835 g; a 7.2% decrease – over an entire region is a substantial reduction; plus, it is cheaper to make and ship but still able to withstand the pressure. As far as bottle closures go, cork has the lowest carbon footprint, about equal to 1 gram CO2 per bottle which edges out the synthetics and screw caps.

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A 2007 study published by the American Association of Wine Economists, pegged transportation of finished wine as the greatest GHG contributor and analyzed the carbon footprint for the various methods of shipping.  Measured in grams of CO2 per ton of cargo per kilometer traveled, the carbon footprint of the various modes of transport are as follows: 52 for container shipping, 67 for refrigerated container shipping, 200 for trains, 252 for trucks, and 570 for air freight.  In essence, there is a sincere environmental cost to 2 day air shipping your next wine club installment.  Additionally, many large retailers are buying in bulk from various regions and bottling the wine closer to the market.  While the motivation for many of these innovations and choice in shipping is financial cost, there is an environment factor associated.

Despite the tricky politics involved in environmental protection on the worldwide stage, we in the wine business will be glad to know that there is serious progress being made in the industry to identify and improve the carbon footprint and environmental impact of our favorite wines.  Shipping will always be a GHG contributor, because we love wine from all over the world and are willing to pay for it.  However, better knowledge, innovation, and a commitment to reporting and improving will raise the bar for the entire industry.  Santé to that!

MarkPost authored by Mark Rashap, CWE. Mark has, over the past ten years, been in the wine world in a number of capacities including studying wine management in Buenos Aires, being an assistant winemaker at Nota Bene Cellars in Washington State, founding his own wine brokerage, and working for Texas-based retail giant Spec’s as an educator for the staff and public.

In August of 2015, Mark joined the team of the Society of Wine Educators as Marketing Coordinator to foster wine education across the country.

Are you interested in being a guest blogger or a guest SWEbinar presenter for SWE?  Click here for more information!

References

 

Guest Post – Build Your Library – the Martini Version!

Last week we had a guest post from Harriet Lembeck CWE, CSE who told us about some us about some excellent wine books to build your library – or give as gifts. This week, we complete the series with “The Martini Version” – as well as a few suggestions for sipping!

The Intel:

Harriett GinGin: The Manual—by Dave Broom (Mitchell Beazley, $19.99 [hard cover]). Dave Broom answers questions about gin that you haven’t thought of yet. Production, contributions of assorted botanicals, comparison of international gins, mixers, and cocktails are all here. Flavorings are divided into four camps: juniper, citrus, spice and floral.

In the second part of the book, over 150 gins are used to produce the same four cocktail recipes, with the results used for comparison and scoring. You can learn which brands go better with tonic and which with bitter lemonade. Each gin gets a page, listing country of origin, proof, main botanicals, and a rating based on how well it works in a Martini.

 

Harriet vermouthVermouth: the Revival of the Spirit that Created America’s Cocktail Culture—by Adam Ford (The Countryman Press, $25, 240 pages [hard cover]). You will be an aromatized authority after reading this book.

It takes 75 pages of the history of Vermouth and its production all around the world to get to Vermouth in the US, also discussed. Medicinal uses of wormwood (vermut – get it?) and many ailments—both real and imagined—cite cures by Vermouth’s wormwood. A study of vermouth in the US includes historical notes and cocktail recipes. There are beautiful photos of old vermouth posters.

 

And to sip…

Harriett apostoles ginPrincipe de los Apostles Mate Gin, Argentina (Southern Starz, Inc.), $35.00 retail: A unique style of gin flavored with yerba mate, eucalipto (eucalyptus), peperina (a type of mint native to Argentina), coriandro (coriander seed) , and pomelo rosado (pink grapefruit). Mate is as beloved by the Argentines as coffee is to the US.

This Argentine gin moves away from traditionally-styled, more juni per -centric flavored gins. It is dry, full, earthy and balanced, and has a savory quality that makes it great for cocktail party foods. It’s fantastic with freshly squeezed grapefruit juice (preferably pink), but goes well with Bitter Lemon soda as well.

Harriett portobello road

 

Portobello Road No. 171 Gin, London, 42% abv, $42 retail: No. 171 Portobello is the Notting Hill address of a popular London Bar known as the Portobello Star.

Upstairs from the bar is London’s Ginstitute, which offers classes in-depth glasses in gin, including the history of gin, the sensory evaluation of gin (gin tasting, if you prefer), an up-close-and-personal experience with botanicals, and a chance to make a personalized gin formula and do-it-yourself gins.

All this experience paid off when the professors created their own and brought it to market in a swing-top bottle. Loaded with botanicals, this gin is flavored with angelica, cassia, lemon peel and coriander in addition to juniper berries. Very aromatic and citrusy, in the London Dry style, it has good fresh flavors that come to life when mixed in a drink. Students of gin based in the United States can now try this gin in their own cocktails.

Harriet Noilly Prat

Noilly Pratt is the ideal dry vermouth for cocktails—at least, that is, according to David Broom’s ranking of vermouth for use in cocktails (and that’s a pretty good predigree).

Although the recipe remains a secret, the brand has cites chamomile, gentian, nutmeg, and bitter orange peel in its original dry white vermouth. A typical Marseilles-style vermouth, Noilly Pratt is noted for its oxidative, lightly wooded flavor.

This article was originally published in Beverage Dynamics Magazine – reprinted with permission!

Are you interested in being a guest blogger or a guest SWEbinar presenter for SWE?  Click here for more information!

Harriet

Harriet Lembeck is a CWE (Certified Wine Educator) and a CSE (Certified Spirits Educator – a new designation). She is President of the Wine & Spirits Program, and revised and updated the textbook Grossman’s Guide to Wines, Beers and Spirits. She was the Director of the Wine Department for The New School University for 18 years. She can be reached at h.lembeck@ wineandspiritsprogram.com.